West European Studies

1. Constitutional monarchy describes a form of government that involves a queen or king who plays the role of a head of state. On the same note, the passing and making of legislation duties do not lie with the king but an elected parliament. Constitutional monarchy differs from divine right absolutism on the basis that the latter describes religious and political doctrine political, as well as royal legitimacy. In a nut shell, a monarch derives his authority and right to rule from God`s will thus the term divine absolutism. Therefore, a leader is subject to the will of God not the people and, therefore, only God has the authority to questions and judge the unjust queens and kings. The subject cannot go against the will of god by attempting to restrict the power and authority of the king.
2. The enlightenment describes an epoch in the history of western culture and thought. The period finds its place in the 17[th] and 18[th] centuries and it was marked by striking revolutions in science, politics, society and philosophy. The revolutions are credited for ushering in the western world (modern), as well as eliminating the mediaeval world.
3. Ptolemaic conception of the universe asserts that the entire objects (celestial) including the stars, moon, sun and planets orbited the earth thus suggesting that the earth remain static for the entire time.
4. The Spanish created nastier germs than the Americans as a result of their settled life style. Further, the Spanish had developed significant resistance and immunity to diseases due to previous infections. These people were not affected by same diseases as the Americans. Eventually, the Spanish had an upper hand when it came to withstanding infections from diseases as smallpox, influenza, pertussis and anthrax.
5. The 21[st] century has experienced vast and advanced technology in medicine and most diseases have been eradicated. Proper farming and animals handling have improved hygiene, as well as diminished transmission of germs from animals to humans. Therefore, the Spanish would not have had any upper hand in terms of germs and diseases as other priorities are required to win a war.
6. The aim was to eliminate the entire limitations to the extent of land that could be explored by both Spain and Portugal. O the same note, the divisions was designed to avoid any possibilities of conflicts between the two nations. There was a possibility of a conflict developing between the two powerful nations thus dividing the world as per the treaty served the interests of the pope of maintaining peace and exploring advantage. The division was achieved through the signing of the treaty of tordesillas and Portugal was assigned all lands located on the east of the line. Spain was assigned lands on the west of the straight line.
7. The voyages were extremely rewarding in terms of economic gain. Therefore, the key motives were to gain economic advantage, as well as discover unexplored areas and lands beyond the seas.
8. Martin Luther did not intend to form a rival church. The theses that he wrote were based on the fact that Christians should be told the truth concern the religion. People should be told the objective be given a chance to choose their path based on knowledge. Threats of punishment should not be encouraged.
9. The three major Islam empires include the mogul empire, the Sunnite ottoman and the Shiite safavid. The three empires retained the root dialectics of the Muslim language. Although the languages might have changed slightly across the empires, the root dialectics were retained. The ethnic traditions were also retained in the three empires, without much many changes.
10. The triangle trade refers to the system of trade that occurred in the colonial era during American History. New Englander produced and shipped rum to the West coast of Africa in return for slaves. The slaves were in turn, taken on the “Middle Passage” to West Indies where they were sold for molasses and money. The purchased products (money and molasses) would be sent to New England to produce rum and start all again.
11. The family was considered as the model for the whole Chinese society. Confucius strongly championed strong family loyalty, respect for elders (respect of husbands by their wives). Chinese tradition and belief recommended family as the basis for ideal government, and an example of relationship between rulers and subjects, whereby the subjects were expected to be humble and meek and obey the rules.
12. The objective was to find a cheap and fast route of sailing to India, as well as other locations for trade. McClure, a British explorer, entered the Arctic waters from the Pacific and spotted a body of water (Prince of Wales Strait), which would have completed the Northwest Passage. The Northwest Passage has been known to exist since the 1850s and was first successfully navigated in the early 20th century.
13. Most of the colonies were struggling to meet demand of products such as tobacco which was expanding at a high rate. As such, the actual motivation for the expansion centered on exploiting the opportunity for immediate profits given that the benefits outweighed the costs of transporting slaves to America.
14. Black Death can be regarded to have been a disastrous blow to the Roman Catholic Church as anger towards the Roman Catholic Church grew. The lack solutions and intervention by the church meant that people became frustrated by the church`s inaction. The Black Death led to widespread persecutions of minorities such as Jews and lepers, and generated a morbid mood across Europe.
15. Social contract stipulates that individuals have consented, either explicitly or tacitly, to give up some of their freedoms and submit to the authority of the ruler in return of protection of the remnant rights. Hobbles held that life was “anarchic” and individuals within the state of nature were asocial and apolitical hence, individual were supposed to submit to an inept or tyrannical ruler. Locke, on the other hand, asserted that no individual can rationally consent to an absolutist government hence, people should not submit to an inept or tyrannical ruler.
16. Empiricism states that theory comes only from sensory experience, and emphasizes the function of experience and evidence, especially sensory experience within the structuring of ideas. Inductive reasoning stipulates that knowledge comes from the particular to the general such as beliefs within an external world emanates from the belief of the self.
17. According to Calvin, God has unchangeable decree right from creation that God freely save some people (the elect), foreordaining theme to eternal life while at the same barring others and sentencing them to eternal death. Calvin`s doctrine appealed to the affluent members of the community, especially their value systems, who viewed their success and work ethic as predestined.
18. The enlightenment was a period in which rationalism was taking root accompanied by separation of religion from daily life, especially among the educated classes. Enlightenment played a critical role in the individualization of religious experience, which in turn, led to secularization of the relationship between society and religion.
19. Ancient China practiced sex selective infanticide can be linked to several factors such as Buddhist belief in transmigration. Other contributing factors include some preferences and relate cultural practices such as patrilocality and patrilineal inheritance.
20. Both Chinese and Islamic empires had wide variations in the manner in which nationalism was expressed, which reveal a lack of content in the identity. As a result of the cultural chauvinism, the ideologies forming the basis of the empires could not transform itself in response to internal crises and external events.
21. In the period ranging from 1500-1800, continental Europe and North America underwent significant changes in the structures of the society including demographic, economic, political, cultural, social, and intellectual, which was shaped by a series of events and trends. The Atlantic migration of Europeans to American, coupled with the commercial activities linked to the migration created an economy that can be regarded as global. The language used in both Europe and North America was based on the colonial authority in place. In the period 1500-1800, relative to the middle Ages, was not marked by profound religiousness and piety within both Europe and North America.
Works Cited
Jerry Bentley & Herb Ziegler, eds., Traditions and Encounters A Global Perspective on the Past, Vol. 2: From 1500 to the Present, 5th Ed

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