Violence against Women

Abstract
This study examined the effects and factors that have hindered
elimination of the issue of violence against women in the society in
spite of efforts and resources spent by governments and non-governmental
organizations. The study accomplished this purpose by reviewing
research works conducted in the past that addressed the issue of
violence against women. The researcher used the social learning theory
to explain the reasons for different communities to learn and accept
violence against women as part of the common practice. The study also
provides an annotated bibliography of all the previous studies cited in
the introductory part. The researcher used the data section analyze the
study content for easy understanding by the reader using tables, charts,
and graphs. The study concluded that comprehensive interventions are
needed to bring about preventive and protective measures that will
change the patriarchal behavior and mindset in the affected communities.
Key words: Violence against women, reporting behavior, domestic
violence, social environment.
Table of Contents
TOC o “1-3” h z u HYPERLINK l “_Toc370472005” Abstract
PAGEREF _Toc370472005 h 2
HYPERLINK l “_Toc370472006” Introduction PAGEREF _Toc370472006 h
4
HYPERLINK l “_Toc370472007” Social learning theory and acceptance of
violence against women society PAGEREF _Toc370472007 h 4
HYPERLINK l “_Toc370472008” Common types of violence against women
PAGEREF _Toc370472008 h 5
HYPERLINK l “_Toc370472009” Violence against women report behavior
PAGEREF _Toc370472009 h 6
HYPERLINK l “_Toc370472010” Effects of violence against women
PAGEREF _Toc370472010 h 6
HYPERLINK l “_Toc370472011” Annotated Bibliography PAGEREF
_Toc370472011 h 7
HYPERLINK l “_Toc370472012” Data PAGEREF _Toc370472012 h 10
HYPERLINK l “_Toc370472013” Health effects of violence against women
PAGEREF _Toc370472013 h 10
HYPERLINK l “_Toc370472014” Violence against women and medication
PAGEREF _Toc370472014 h 11
HYPERLINK l “_Toc370472015” Public attitude towards reporting
PAGEREF _Toc370472015 h 12
HYPERLINK l “_Toc370472016” Public discussion about violence against
women and reporting behavior PAGEREF _Toc370472016 h 13
HYPERLINK l “_Toc370472017” Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc370472017 h
15
HYPERLINK l “_Toc370472018” References PAGEREF _Toc370472018 h
17
Violence against women is a major concern of human rights perspective as
well as developmental interventions in the present world. Violence
against women is a form of mistreatment and discrimination against
women, which occurs through psychological, physical, and socioeconomic
costs to women. It is a historical demonstration of power relations
between parties of different sexes (men and women). Many parts of the
world are occupied by patriarchal society where women are perceived to
be powerless, thus an increase in their vulnerability to men domination
and subjugation. Research has established that the violence has direct
mental, health-physical, reproductive, sexual, and economic consequences
on women (Fanslow & Robinson, 2004). Despite the efforts applied by
governmental and non-governmental organizations to challenge man’s
supremacy against women in the society, the vice has shown an inclining
trend in some parts of the world such as (World Health Organization,
2013). This means that more comprehensive intervention is needed in
order to bring about preventive and protective measures that will change
the patriarchal behavior and mindset in the affected communities.
Social learning theory and acceptance of violence against women in the
society
Despite the clearly defined laws and public policies formulated by local
governments and international organizations to ensure that all people
live free of violence, violence against women is still a major
challenge. According to Capella, Hill & Kees (2010) social learning
theory provides the most appropriate framework to enhance the
understanding the how some communities have been made to accept violence
against women as part of their life and the difficulty of eliminating
such a mindset. The primary assumption of the social learning theory is
that people acquire a certain behavior after observing its practice by
other people and the outcome it brings. In the case of violence against
women, learning occurs without the intention of learning or
community’s awareness that learning has taken place. This implies that
human beings and their environment affect each other (either positively
or negatively) simultaneously (Capella, Hill & Kees, 2010). In addition,
the increase in media programs and articles with aggressive stories has
stimulated emotional response, new style of conduct against women, and
acquisition of negative attitude against women. These factors have
contributed to the firm establishment of the practice of violence
against women some communities.
Common types of violence against women
There are different forms of violence against women ranging from mental
to physical forms of abuse. While addressing the impact of violence
against women in advertising, Capella, Hill & Kees (2010) identified
that there is an increase in acceptance of sexualized violence in the
society, which is characterized by rape and cross-gender aggression. In
addition, the researcher suggested that rape myth has greatly affected
the perception of the society about sexualized violence. Rape myth holds
that victims of rate hold the primary responsibility for sexual assault
against them while rapists are assumed to have little personal
responsibility for their aggressive actions. This makes sexual violence
(either by their spouses or strangers) against women one of the most
common forms of violence in the world. An increase in physical violence
(such as beating) and a combination of physical and sexual violence has
also been widely reported. According to Fanslow & Robinson (2004) 17 %
of women in Auckland report incidents of physical violence and 33 % of
them report a combination of physical and sexual violence. Other forms
of violence include stalking, violence of women at work, oppression of
women with disabilities, women trafficking, and dating violence. U.S.
Policy Digest (n.d) reported that violence against women is the cause of
the largest number of injuries inflicted on women in the United States.
Violence against women report behavior
The perception held by the members of the public about reporting cases
of violence against women is an important determinant of the
perpetuation of this vice. This is because the public attitude shapes
the environment that embeds perpetrators of violence against women as
well as the social environment that allows tolerance and perpetuation of
this vice (Gracial & Herrero, 2006). From s psychological perspective,
there is a causal relationship between actual behavior and attitude
towards the behavior. This implies that the negative attitude held by
the society about reporting of violence against women has contributed
towards the progression of this aggression. In addition, the fear of
public opinion may result in the occurrence of many unreported cases of
violence, which provides an environment favorable for perpetrators since
no action is taken against them. This is most common for domestic
violence where the negative attitude creates a social climate of
tolerance, secrecy, and passivity (Gracial & Herrero, 2006).
Effects of violence against women
Violence against women has both long-term and short-term consequences on
women, their children, and the entire society. An investigation by
Capella, Hill & Kees (2010) indicated that the sexual violence in the
advertising sector affects memory adversely. This is a psychological
effect of violence against women that was also reported by other
researchers. According to Illinois Department of Public Health (n.d)
aggression aggressive acts against women results in social depression,
health problems, suicidal ideation, and abuse of alcohol among women.
The findings reported in the article indicated that victims of partner
and non-partner aggression experience depression and anxiety. In
addition, the researcher reported that victims who attempt to report
violence conducted against them are stigmatized by their community
members, and increases unreported traumatic experiences that accelerates
depression. Moreover, research on health effects of violence against
women revealed that the violence imparts suicidal ideation on the
victim, physical damage to the extent of being unable to walk or work,
virginal discharge, dizziness, pain, discomfort (Fanslow & Robinson,
2004).
Annotated Bibliography
Capella, L., Hill, R. & Kees, J. (2010). The impact of violence against
women in advertisements. Lincoln: University of Nebraska.
The researchers address violence against women in advertising with a
focus on the effectiveness of such marketing techniques and their effect
on the progress of aggression against women. The researchers explore
this topic using the social learning theory to explain how the society
accepts the cross-gender violence and sexual assaults in spite of the
massive campaigns conducted to challenge this vice. The findings
reported in the article indicate that sexualized violence does not
enhance marketing success, but has negative effects to the society. This
is a useful article because it informs much about sexualized violence
against women, which is one of the leading forms of aggression omitted
against women in the present world. Additionally, the article enhances
the understanding of how communities learn to accept gender-based
violence from the social learning perspective.
Fanslow, J. & Robinson, E. (2004). Violence against women in New
Zealand: Prevalence and health consequences. The New Zealand Medical
Journal, 117 (1206), 1-12.
The purpose of this article is to examine the health consequences of
violence against women especially the acts of violence committed by
intimate partners. The researchers identify violence as a major cause of
ill-health among women in New Zealand as an example. The findings of the
articles indicate that violence cause mental and physical health
complications, thus calling for drastic measures to curtail violence
against women. The researchers specify that effective measures must
address intimate partner violence and contribute towards the development
of a sustainable response to perpetrators of violence in the health
system. It is a useful article because it enhances the understanding of
the health effects of violence against women.
Gracial, E. & Herrero, J. (2006). Public attitudes towards reporting
partner violence against women and reporting behavior. Journal of
Marriage and Family, 68, 759-768.
Gracial and Herrero addresses the impact of public attitude towards
reporting of cases of violence against women on the social environment.
The researchers managed to establish a relationship between negative
attitude towards reporting and the development of a social environment
that favors the gender-based violence. More importantly, the article
attributed the progress of domestic violence to three aspects of social
climate namely tolerance, secrecy, and passivity to cases of violence.
It is a resource article because it documents the causes of the
inclining trend in acceptance of domestic violence and reasons for the
difficulties of eliminating the practice from society. In addition, the
article informs about the prevalence of domestic violence, which is the
type of violence that is most affected by secrecy.
Illinois Department of Public Health (n.d). Facts about domestic
violence. Illinois Department of Public Health. Retrieved October 22,
2013, from HYPERLINK
“http://www.idph.state.il.us/about/womenshealth/factsheets/dv.htm”
http://www.idph.state.il.us/about/womenshealth/factsheets/dv.htm
This is a website owned by the Illinois Department of Health and is used
to publish articles on women’s health. For example, the article cited
in the present research entails important information pertaining to
domestic violence, which makes it relevant for the study. Some of the
most important issues addressed in the article include the clear
description of domestic violence, its signs, and an advice for women
living with abusive partners on how to leave them. In addition,
highlights some legal measures put in place to deal with domestic
violence in Illinois. Although the article addresses the topic of
domestic violence the advice contained in it is in the favor of women.
U.S. Policy Digest (n.d). Domestic violence. U.S. Policy Digest.
Retrieved October 22, 2013, from HYPERLINK
“http://uspolicydigest.com/Domestic_Violence_Statistics_Facts_Causes.php

http://uspolicydigest.com/Domestic_Violence_Statistics_Facts_Causes.php
The U.S. Policy Digest is a website owned by the government of the
United States and it is used to publish articles in different fields,
which include criminal justice, economics, education, environment,
government, health, foreign policy and social welfare. The article on
domestic violence is relevant and useful for the present study because
it is presented in a biased way in that it describes domestic violence
as acts of violence done by men against women. The most useful
information sources in the article for the purpose of fulfillment of the
present study include the prevalence of domestic violence and its
effects on women’s health.
World Health Organization (2013, October). Media center: Violence
against women. World Health Organization. Retrieved October 19, 2013,
from HYPERLINK “http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs239/en/”
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs239/en/
The World Health Organization (WHO) is a website that publishes research
findings and articles especially those that address major health issues
affecting the society in different parts of the world. In addition, the
website is used by WHO to publish significant statistical data, and
health programs that are used by the organization to improve societal
health in the all over the world. For example, the article sources from
the website for the purpose of accomplishment of the present study
addressed violence against women where significant statistical data of
research findings are presented and discussed. This makes the website
relevant and resources for the current study.
Data
This section contains the data analyzed to demonstrate various aspects
of violence against women, which include health impacts of violence,
tendency of affected women to seek for medical assistance, attitude
towards reporting cases of violence, courage to take part in public
discussion on the topic of violence against women, and reporting
behavior. The data analyzed in this section was obtained from two
sources cited in the introduction section Fanslow & Robinson (2004) and
Gracial & Herrero (2006).
Health effects of violence against women
Table 1: Effects of violence against women on mental health
Variable Level of physical violence Percentage of participants
Suicidal thought No physical violence 19.6
Moderate violence 40.3
Severe violence 52.3
Suicidal attempts ever No physical violence 2.3
Moderate physical violence 7.5
Severe physical violence 20.9
Source: Fanslow & Robinson (2004)
Table 1 shows the proportions of women who either thought of committing
suicide or attempted to commit suicide.
Figure 1: Trend in thought or attempt to commit suicide
Table 1 and Figure 1 shows that violence against women increase the
probability of women to think or attempting to commit suicide. In
addition, the severity of violence determines the tendency of women to
think or attempt to commit suicide.
Violence against women and medication
Table 2: Association between violence against women and medication
Variable Level of violence Percentage of participants
Medication to calm down or sleep No physical violence 6.6
Moderate violence 10.1
Severe violence 11.5
Medication to relieve pain No physical violence 20.6
Moderate violence 30.4
Severe violence 33.4
Medication to reduce sadness or depression No physical violence 4.0
Moderate physical violence 8.4
Severe violence 9.7
Source: Fanslow & Robinson (2004)
Table 1 shows the reasons for women to seek for medical services at
different levels of physical violence. The main reasons for women to
seek for medical service include calming down, reducing pain, or
reducing depression.
Figure 2: Trend for women seeking medication at different degrees of
violence
Figure 1 shows that the increase in the degree of violence increases the
tendency of women to seek for medical treatment.
Public attitude towards reporting
Table 3: Attitude towards reporting
Attitude Number of participants Percentage
Negative 230 9.5
Positive 1848 76.6
Do not know 336 13.9
Source: Gracial & Herrero (2006)
Table 3 shows the attitude of the general public towards reporting cases
of violence against women. From the table, the large proportion of the
population (76.6 %) has a positive attitude towards reporting, but the
percentage of people with negative attitude (9.5 %) and those who did
not know (13.9 %) is still high given the significant impacts of
violence against impacts.
Figure 3: Pie chart representing attitude towards reporting cases of
violence against women
Figure 3 is a pie chart representing the data in Table 3 for the
proportions of the general population’s attitude towards reporting
cases of violence against violence.
Public discussion about violence against women and reporting behavior
Table 4: Public discussion
Rate Number of participants Percentage
Low 1161 47.7
High 1271 52.3
Source: Gracial & Herrero (2006)
Table 4 shows the data for public courage to participate in public
discussion on the topic of violence against women where 1161 of the
respondents had low desire and 1271 had a high desire to take part in
discussions.
Table 5: Reporting behavior
Response Number of respondents Percentage
No 403 73.4
Yes 147 26.6
Source: Gracial & Herrero (2006)
Table 5 shows that the proportions of respondents who could report cases
of violence against women to responsible authorities and those who could
not report. These proportions are represented below in Figure 4 where
the 73.4 % can report while 26.6 percent would keep silence about the
incidents of violence against women.
Figure 4: Proportions of violence reporting behavior
The bigger proportion of the general population would report cases of
violence, but the percentage (26. 6 %) of people who cannot report
violence against women is significant and suggests that efforts are
needed sensitize the society about the importance of reporting.
Conclusion
Comprehensive interventions are needed in order to bring about
preventive and protective measures that will change the patriarchal
behavior and mindset in the affected communities. Computer technology
has eased the process of analyzing research data and increased accuracy
of results. In the present study, the use of excess made it easy to
construct linear graphs that help in the determination of direction of
change in the psychological effects on women who undergo violence. Other
categories of information that have been simplified by use of computer
resources include the association between degree of violence and
decision to seek medical assistance, public attitudes towards reporting,
and willingness to take part in public discussion. This simplified
information is important to the members of the public and stakeholders
who may not be willing to read volumes of notes to understand facts
about violence against women. This is because readers can get facts at a
glance by reviewing the graphs charts, and tables.
There are three issues that were more interesting in the present
research. First, the research has revealed that many people in the
society have learned and accepted the vice of violence against women.
The use of social learning theory has made it easy to understand the
reasons for many people in different communities to accept violence
against women as part of their community norms. Secondly, the research
has revealed that the negative attitude of the society to take part in
community discussion and report cases of violence against women to
responsible authorities creates a favorable environment for violence
against women to thrive. This implies that society has a significant
role to play in reduces domestic and non-domestic violence against
women. Third, it was interesting to learn that violence against women
cause serious medical illness (including depression and physical
injuries) and can even result in death. The documentation of these facts
in the present study will draw attention of policy makers and other
researcher to formulate policies and legal measures to curtail the vice.
These pieces of information were sufficient to answer the research
question about factors that result in communities’ accepting violence
against women in spite of the legal and civil measures that have been
put in place to reduce the vice.
.
References
Capella, L., Hill, R. & Kees, J. (2010). The impact of violence against
women in advertisements. Lincoln: University of Nebraska.
Fanslow, J. & Robinson, E. (2004). Violence against women in New
Zealand: Prevalence and health consequences. The New Zealand Medical
Journal, 117 (1206), 1-12.
Gracial, E. & Herrero, J. (2006). Public attitudes towards reporting
partner violence against women and reporting behavior. Journal of
Marriage and Family, 68, 759-768.
Illinois Department of Public Health (n.d). Facts about domestic
violence. Illinois Department of Public Health. Retrieved October 22,
2013, from HYPERLINK
“http://www.idph.state.il.us/about/womenshealth/factsheets/dv.htm”
http://www.idph.state.il.us/about/womenshealth/factsheets/dv.htm
U.S. Policy Digest (n.d). Domestic violence. U.S. Policy Digest.
Retrieved October 22, 2013, from HYPERLINK
“http://uspolicydigest.com/Domestic_Violence_Statistics_Facts_Causes.php

http://uspolicydigest.com/Domestic_Violence_Statistics_Facts_Causes.php
World Health Organization (2013, October). Media center: Violence
against women. World Health Organization. Retrieved October 19, 2013,
from HYPERLINK “http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs239/en/”
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs239/en/
VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN
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VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN
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