1. Explain why training and education are vital in health care.
Training and education in healthcare entail development of individual or teams, for the purposes of achieving both organization and the goals of the individual employee. Training and education result to healthcare professional development, which is a lasting process of critical involvement in learning activities meant to enhance professional practice (Leathard, 2000). The importance of training and education in healthcare sector cannot be undermined. Training and education plays a crucial role for the long success of the facility. The healthcare industry is unpredictable and it is therefore important for employees including physicians, nurses and other staff to receive training for any changes that may occur (Leathard, 2000). Training and education in healthcare also enhance quality service delivery. Due to the varied jobs available in healthcare, training and education helps employees to fulfill the requirements of specific jobs such as leadership roles (Leathard, 2000). Giving training or education to employees helps in reducing errors and undesirable outcome.
Consequently reducing errors will save the employee and the health facility from potential law suits that may follow (Leathard, 2006). The introduction of new technology in the healthcare system requires training and education in order to increase efficiency.
2. Explain the importance of measuring competencies.
Measuring competence is important in several ways as discussed by Kak, Burkhalter and Cooper (2001). They include
Healthcare reforms: The increasing complexity of healthcare delivery and changes in market dynamics have prompted policy makers in healthcare to engage in measuring competencies of students and new graduates as well as continuing competence of experienced practitioners.
Organizational performance: It is the role of healthcare organizations to assess the performance of individuals and the organization to determine their effectiveness in service delivery. The results guide health care organizations in determining whether there is need or not to design training and education to enhance providers` performance.
Liability and ethics: Healthcare organizations are accountable for the quality of care provided by their employees. Measuring competencies of care providers regularly enables healthcare organizations to achieve its objectives.
Risk management: Measuring competence is useful for monitoring organization wide understanding of procedures and policies related to high risks areas.
Planning for emerging services: Measuring competence allows managers in health care to identify competent providers in providing emerging clinical service. It also helps them in identifying providers who require improvements for specific skills or knowledge wherever a new service is introduced and providers that are ready to offer mentorship.
Measuring training results: Competency assessment that results to low results after training and education implies that training and education was poorly designed, in appropriate and ineffective. Hence trainers can use competency assessment results to improve training and education content.
Improvement of individual/group performance: Assessment helps managers in identifying gaps in skills and knowledge and guides them in establishing appropriate training or remedial strategies targeted at individuals or group of providers (Leathard, 2000).
Recruiting new staff: measuring competency is important when recruiting new employees to determine whether they are fit for the job.
Supervision: measuring competence can guide managers in health care to offer performance enhancement feedback to their staff.
3. Describe the process for tracking and evaluating training effectiveness.
When an organization invests in some form of training, it must be able to track and evaluate the effectiveness of that training. Training is meant to enhance organizational performance. Evaluation of training is part of the training cycle. It entails analysis and comparison of real progress against prior plans, meant to improving plans for future implementation (Thakore, 2006). Training evaluation is part of a progressive management procedure consisting of planning, implementation and evaluation. Fundamentally, each of these elements follows each other in a constant cycle until successful completion of an activity. According to Thakore (2006), the process of evaluation must be started before the beginning of training and should continue throughout the entire learning process.
4. Describe the process of progressive discipline.
Progressive discipline is a procedure for addressing work-related behavior that does not match the anticipated and communicated performance standards. The main aim of progressive discipline is to guide the employee to acknowledge that a problem with performance or an opportunity for development is available. A typical progressive discipline process involves the following five steps:
Oral reprimand: this is the first step taken when the employer realizes there is a problem with performance. The supervisor/employer should ask the employee whether there are any skill deficiency problems or long term problems that need to be corrected. Conversation should be filed for future reference (Prescott & Rothwell, 2012).
Written warning: this is a sermon given in writing only if the problem persists. It explains the problem and possible consequences. The employee must acknowledge upon receiving the warning.
Final written warning: when the problem persists, this warning is given detailing actions such as probation.
Termination review: the supervisor reports to the HR to review termination for firing.
Termination: this is the final decision taken after all the other steps. At this point, you know you have given the employee an opportunity to improve but that did not take it seriously (Prescott & Rothwell, 2012).
5. Discuss how progressive discipline and training can be related.
Progressive discipline is not meant at firing an employee. It is a part of putting the employee on track. When the supervisor/employer realizes that there is a problem with performance of an employee, they can use training to help the employee improve. Though progressive discipline is meant to reprimand the employee to improve their performance, training is always available for the employee to improve if he or she shows interest (Prescott & Rothwell, 2012). The roles of training and progressive discipline are intertwined. When an employee is summoned, he must take advantage of the training offered by the organization in order to prevent extreme action such as probation and firing.
In addition the training provided by the organization is meant to improve the performance of all employees. If the employer notices some gap in performance standards, he or she must establish whether the training is ineffective and seek to redesign it (Prescott, R. & Rothwell, 2012). If it is effective as exhibited by the performance of most employees, he knows that this one employee has an individual problem that need to be addressed through progressive discipline process.
Kak, N., Burkhalter, B., and Cooper, M. (2001). Measuring the Competence of Healthcare Providers, Operations Research Issue Paper, 2(1), 1-28.
Leathard, A. (2000). Health care provision: past, present, and into the 21st century. Cheltenham, Glos., UK: Stanley Thornes.
Prescott, R. & Rothwell, W. (2012). Encyclopedia of Human Resource Management, Key Topics and Issues. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.
Thakore, D.G. (2006 September, 12). Evaluating the Effectiveness of Training. Retrieved http://www.citeman.com/1000-evaluating-the-effectiveness-of-training.html (Accessed October 11, 2013).