The Effectiveness of Psychotherapeutic Interventions to reduce symptoms

of trauma in victims of Rape/Sexual Assault: A Systematic Review
Chapter 3:
3.1. Search Strategy/ Methods
Search engines were used as the primary source of relevant literature
due to the ease of limiting the search and the expansiveness of the
literature available. In this case, the search for relevant literature
was limited to varied electronic databases over time period since their
inception to December 2012. Databases included the Cochrane Central
Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), EMBASE, Cochrane Database of
Systematic Reviews, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED),
MEDLINE, PubMed and CINAHL. In addition, the search was extended to grey
literature, where unpublished trials were searched through the Register
of the Controlled Trials databases. On the same note, it was deemed
necessary that constant communication with identified experts in
relevant fields such as trauma and individuals interventions is
maintained, not to mention that the search had to be extended to the
departmental files. While entering keywords in the search engines may
have seemed satisfactory considering the results, it was imperative that
the included articles have their references examined so as to have other
relevant articles that perhaps had not been picked using other
techniques of searching.
3.2 Keywords Used
Varied key search terms were used so as to bring the most relevant
articles into the picture. These words included PSTD or Posttraumatic
Stress Disorder, post-traumatic, rape stress, sexual abuse stress
disorder, sexual abuse trauma, sexual abuse trauma interventions, and
stress disorders rape, rape stress disorder psychotherapeutic
interventions, psychotherapeutic interventions for sexual abuse victims
and stress disorder psychotherapeutic interventions. While search
strategies had to be adjusted for every database that was examined, MeSH
strategy proved effective as a powerful search strategy where
applicable. On the same note, personal contact with the authors or
researchers in particular journals or academic sources, especially in
instances where clarity was sought on matters pertaining to the data
used and the participants incorporated in the study.
3.3 Detailed Search Strategy
ELECTRONIC SEARCH STRATEGY
The Cochrane Medline optimal Randomized Controlled Trials search
strategy was blended with keywords “rape”, “trauma”,
“traumatic stress”, posttraumatic Stress” “PSTD” and PSTD in
rape victims.
Embase Cochrane optimal RCT search strategy was combined with
psychotherapeutic interventions, psychotherapy, PTSD psychotherapy, and
interventions.
A search was done on Cochrane Central trials register with keywords PSTD
or Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, post-traumatic, rape stress, sexual
abuse stress disorder, sexual abuse trauma, sexual abuse trauma
interventions, and stress disorders rape, rape stress disorder
psychotherapeutic interventions, psychotherapeutic interventions for
sexual abuse victims and stress disorder psychotherapeutic interventions
Hand search
The search for journal studies covering the topic was limited to
journals dated 2007- to date. These journals included the following.
Journal of traumatic stress
Journal of Human Stress
Journal of the Emergency Medical Services
Mass Emergencies and Disasters (all years)
Transcultural psychiatry
3.4 Grey literature
With the help of the other reviewers, I took it upon myself to look for
the relevant literature in the varied libraries. All in all, I came
across 17 controlled trials that had been published after 2007. A search
in Medline database yielded 8 publications, a number that increased to
12 after checking the references incorporated in the literature, as well
as references of those references. However, dissertations and congress
reports proved to be more fruitful in the case of psychotherapeutic
interventions.
Flow chart
Chapter 4
4.1 Types of Studies Incorporated In the Systematic Review
There existed no restrictions as to the scope of the study especially
with regard to the study design. However, it is required that the
studies incorporated in the systematic review be prospective clinical
trials. This systematic review incorporated randomised controlled
trials, as well as nonrandomised controlled trials that examined the
results of varied psychotherapeutic interventions on the symptoms of
trauma in rape victims. In addition, the research question was given a
more solid foundation through the inclusion of uncontrolled clinical
trials (UCTs) pertaining to the varied psychotherapeutic interventions
for post traumatic stress disorder. This also would come in handy in
making recommendations to readers and researchers on areas that could be
explored or other aspects that could be incorporated in future research.
However, any randomised controlled trials and others would be
separately analysed, with more being interpreted on RCTs due to the
quality of research as a result of the validity of the evidence. On the
same note, it is noteworthy that the studies were not restricted with
regard to the year of publication, languages, or even blinding.
4. 3 Participants incorporated in the study
All studies were selected including those that had participants with
posttraumatic stress disorder that had been diagnosed using any set or
criteria ICD-10 and DSM-IV, irrespective of gender, nationality, age,
inpatient therapy, as well as outpatient therapy.
4.3 Types of Controls/Interventions used in the Studies
Trials that included psychotherapeutic interventions either in isolation
or as a set or comparison group were included in the study. In addition,
trials that used control that had no treatment, conventional treatments
for posttraumatic stress disorder patients were included.
4.5. Types of Outcome Measures for the Studies
As much as this study was supposed to look into the effectiveness of the
psychotherapeutic Interventions in the reduction of symptoms of trauma
in rape victims, it was imperative that recent guidelines pertaining to
the key outcomes of interventions of PTSD were examined and used. Key
outcomes included a reduction in the severity of the posttraumatic
stress disorder symptoms, adherence of the patient to the treatment
plan, reduction and prevention of trauma-related comorbid conditions,
social, interpersonal, adaptive and occupational functioning, rate of
collapse, quality of life, and response to treatment.
For this study, the key outcome measures included any relevant
posttraumatic stress disorder scales such as depression scale, anxiety
scale and even clinically-administered posttraumatic stress disorder
scales (CAPS). In addition, predefined protocol was followed by the
extraction of other scales that were related to proportion of patients
that had recovered, as well as impairment.
4.6. Screening the Articles, Extraction of Data and Assessment of their
Quality
After carefully review and examination of the abstracts and titles that
the search had brought up, all search results or articles that did not
match the exclusion/inclusion criteria in line with the predefined
eligibility criteria were excluded. This left me with expected or
potential inclusions, which I carefully read in full text, after which I
made a decision on the final inclusion using the matching technique. In
cases where the studies were composed in languages that I could not
comprehend, the colleagues would undertake a careful and comprehensive
translation so as to determine their eligibility. These would then be
categorised in line with the eligibility criteria. In cases where it was
necessary to undertake a review of the full text, this would be assessed
after translation. I extracted data independently on the basis of
predefined characteristics so as to describe every study. In instances
where I could not be sure about the quality and eligibility of any
studies or articles, I would consult other individuals who are qualified
to undertake reviews. A third party may be called in to give his opinion
in instances where there is no agreement on the same. Of course, it was
not given that I would agree with the opinions of the third party or
even the second reviewer, in which case the final opinion or choice was
at my discretion. The conduction of quality assessment and extraction of
data by a single researcher is bound to introduce some bias, which can
only be prevented by the inclusion of another researcher and even a
third party in case of disagreements or discrepancies (Vickerman &
Margolin, 2009, pp. 440). This would be further reduced by a process of
quality control cross-check.
The CONSORT 2010 checklist for evaluation and reporting the quality of
Randomised Controlled Trials and the Cochrane risk of bias for
evaluating the quality of the same were used in assessing the
methodological quality of the publications included in the study. It is
worth noting that all reviewers that participated in the study had
undergone full and comprehensive training on data extraction techniques
and the assessment of the quality of data.
Every stage of the process involves recording of standardized data
including details pertaining to methodology and design, the demographics
and characteristics of the participants, year of study, country, where
the articles were published, the adverse events, as well as findings and
comments.
The quality appraisal pertaining to the reviewed quantitative studies
depend on the type of study involved. In cases of cohort studies or case
control, corresponding critical appraisal checklists and Critical
Appraisal Skills Program (CASP) would be used. Incidence and prevalence
studies are to be appraised by the use of methodological scoring
systems.
Before the data is extracted, all articles that are included in the
study would be coded so as to allow for the classification of the type
of clinical presentation within which it falls. Coding defines the key
clinical presentation with regard to any of the symptoms of trauma in
victims of sexual abuse and rape. On the same note, in case it is
required, articles that examine specific interventions may have the
authors further coming up with a definition of the sub-classification
process on the basis of the type of intervention. Such a priori
classification would eliminate the possibility of any unintentional
misclassification of data upon the conclusion of data analysis process
and identification of interim results.
4.8. Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria
4.8.1 General inclusion criteria
For articles and academic works to be included in the review, it was
imperative that they meet varied conditions or inclusion criteria.
First, all reports and articles had to include individuals who had
undergone had traumatic experiences not less than 2 years prior to the
study.
In addition, the participants have to be civilians. In instances where
the participants were in the military, it is imperative that they are no
longer in active serve. Alternatively, they could be territorial
personnel or reservists that have undergone deployment but are now in
civilian life.
The papers to be included in the review must only include mental health
problems that emanate from a traumatic event rather than any that had
emerged prior to the event. The articles and reports may be examining
one symptom or many of them and making a comparison between the varied
psychotherapeutic interventions. The symptoms of posttraumatic stress
disorder for rape victims may include intense helplessness, fear,
horror, distressing and repeated recollections of the traumatising event
including thoughts, perceptions and images where the individual would be
unable to differentiate between reality and past events (also called
flashbacks). In addition, the victims may avoid anything that triggers
thoughts on that episode including failing to talk about the episode
itself, denial, inability to remember anything pertaining to the attack
or even pretending that the act never occurred to them. In most cases,
the victims are bound to undergo feelings of isolation and depression,
deficiency in concentration, modify their sleep patterns, irritability,
low confidence and self esteem, intense embarrassment, morbid hatred for
or bitterness with the perpetrator and intense preoccupation on how they
can humiliate or harm them (Nishith et al, 2003, pp. 248). As much as
there seems to be a similarity between the response of individuals that
have undergone a wide range of traumatic events including disasters,
life-threatening accidents and rape, there exists a significant
difference between the consequences associated with rape and those from
other categories of trauma. This is especially with regard to the strong
aspect of stigma, societal blame, self blame, and revictimisation in the
system of criminal justice among others. Indeed, scholars have noted
that such factors result in an increased risk of suicide and a higher
incidence of concurrent depression (Nishith et al, 2003, pp. 248).
Research comparing the incidence or occurrence of post traumatic stress
disorder between victims of rape or sexual abuse and individuals who
have undergone other forms of traumatic events showed that rape had the
highest incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder at 49% as compared to
other forms of sexual assaults at 23%, natural disaster at 3.8%, serious
car accident at 2.3%, other forms of serious accident at 16.8%, or even
being stabbed or shot which stood at 15% (Nishith et al, 2003, pp. 248).
The review is to be concentrated on psychotherapeutic interventions that
are classified into seven groups. These include the following.
Interpersonal psychotherapy- this is a highly structured but short
therapy that makes use of a manual to concentrate on the interpersonal
issues pertaining to depression emanating from trauma.
Behavioral activation- this intervention aims at enhancing the awareness
of the client to the pleasant things that may be happening around him or
her in an effort to enhance positive interaction between him or her and
the environment.
Problem solving therapy: this intervention seeks to come up with a
definition of the problems that the patient is facing and proposing
varied solutions for every problem before selecting, implementing and
assessing the effectiveness of the problem.
Cognitive behavioral therapy: This therapy involves a close look at the
current negative beliefs that the client may be having emanating from
the incidence and causing emotional turmoil and depression. An
evaluation would them be carried on the negative belief’s effects on
future and current behavior after which there would be efforts to
restructure the negative beliefs, as well as modify the patient’s
outlook.
Social skills therapy: involves teaching patients skills that allow them
to build, as well as maintain healthy relationships that are based on
respect and honesty.
Psychodynamic therapy: mainly focuses on any unresolved relationships
and conflicts in the past, as well as their impact on the current
situation of the patient.
Supportive counseling: comes as a considerably general therapy that
mainly aims at getting patients to talk about their emotions and
experiences, as well as offer empathy without teaching new skills or
making any suggestions on solutions.
In instances where the article was published prior to the publication of
the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10),
then it will be imperative that the authors match the clinical
presentation that is outlined in one of the contemporary
classifications. In this case, symptoms such as anxiety reaction,
psychoneurosis, and hysteria may be matched up with ICD-10 F40-48
classification, while reactive depression and manic depression would be
matched up with ICD-10 F30-39 classification.
4.8.2 General exclusion criteria
While this paper would take a wholesome approach in the inclusion of
articles and academic works, there are varied conditions that would
result in the exclusion of a particular article as a reference. This
would include the following.
Reports and articles that are entirely descriptive in instances where
there exists no evidence pertaining to either quantitative or
qualitative structured inquiry.
Reports and articles that mainly concentrate on the physical health
consequences of rape or sexual abuse.
4.8.3 Specific inclusion criteria at the Quantitative Stage
Studies that outline the incidence and/or the prevalence of rape victims
that have experience posttraumatic stress disorder and mental health
problems.
Studies and articles that report on the varied psychotherapeutic
interventions and their applications in individuals with posttraumatic
stress disorder.
Articles that compare the applications of psychotherapeutic
interventions with other forms of interventions.
Empirical cohort studies and case-control reports that compare victims
of sexual abuse who have or have no posttraumatic stress disorder or
mental health issues, who have or may not have undergone any
psychotherapeutic interventions.
4.8.5 Specific exclusion criteria at the Quantitative Stage
Studies that outline issues pertaining to mental health symptoms and
trauma prior to undergoing the sexual abuse or rape, in instances where
there exists no empirical case control.
Case control studies that have obtained data on mental health in
instances where no previous sexual abuse or rape has been meted on the
individual.
Studies where there has not been any clinical confirmation as to the
existence of posttraumatic stress disorder or mental health problems.
Studies that primarily concentrate on assessing the psychometric
characteristics pertaining to the measuring tools for identifying or
perceiving issues pertaining to mental health issues or posttraumatic
stress disorder.
Specific inclusion criteria at the Qualitative Stage
Interview studies that and focus group reports that outline the
opinions, experiences, as well as views of rape victims that have trauma
or mental health problems regardless of the qualitative analysis model
that is used.
Qualitative stage specific exclusion criteria
Qualitative study articles and reports would be excluded in instances
where they are outlining-:
Single case studies
Studies that only examine the use of qualitative methodological issues.
4.9. Included and Excluded studies
JBI Critical Appraisal for Experimental Studies
RESICK, P. & SCHNICKE, M (1992). Cognitive processing therapy for sexual
assault victims. Journal of Consulting and Clinical
Psychology60(5):748-756.
Reviewer 20th September, 2013
Author: RESICK & SCHNICKE, Year 1992 Record Number
Yes No Unclear
Was the assignment to treatment groups random? Yes
Were participants blinded to the allocation of treatment? Yes
Was the allocator blinded to the allocation to treatment group?
No
Were the outcome assessors blinded to the allocation of treatment?
Unclear
Were the outcomes of individuals that withdrew from the study included
in the analysis and described? Yes
Were the individuals that assessed the outcomes blind to the allocation
of treatment? Yes
Were the treatment and control groups comparable at entry? Yes
Was the same measurement used for all groups?
Unclear
Were the outcomes of the study measured in a reliable manner? Yes
Was sufficient follow up indicated in the study (>80%) Yes
Did the study use appropriate statistical analysis? Yes
Overall appraisal: Include Yes
Comments
Brunet, A., Orr, S. O., Tremblay, J., Robertson, K., Nader, K., &
Pitman, R. K (2008). Effect of post-retrieval propranolol on
psychophysiologic responding during subsequent script-driven traumatic
imagery in post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Psychiatric
Research. Volume 42, Issue 6 , Pages 503-506
Reviewer 20th September, 2013
Author: Brunet et al Year 2008 Record Number
Yes No Unclear
Was the assignment to treatment groups random? Yes
Were participants blinded to the allocation of treatment? Yes
Was the allocator blinded to the allocation to treatment group?
Unclear
Were the outcome assessors blinded to the allocation of treatment?
Unclear
Were the outcomes of individuals that withdrew from the study included
in the analysis and described? Yes
Were the individuals that assessed the outcomes blind to the allocation
of treatment? Yes
Were the treatment and control groups comparable at entry?
Unclear
Was the same measurement used for all groups? Yes
Were the outcomes of the study measured in a reliable manner? Yes
Was sufficient follow up indicated in the study (>80%) Yes
Did the study use appropriate statistical analysis? Yes
Overall appraisal: EXCLUDE
Comments (for excluded studies only)
While the journal was sufficiently comprehensive and outlined studies on
posttraumatic stress disorder, it had very little to offer on
psychotherapeutic interventions and their effectiveness in treating the
same.
Gros, D. F., Price, M., Strachan, M., Yuen, E. K., Milanak, M. E &
Acierno, R (2012). Behavioral Activation and Therapeutic Exposure: An
Investigation of Relative Symptom Changes in PTSD and Depression During
the Course of Integrated Behavioral Activation, Situational Exposure,
and Imaginal Exposure Techniques Behav Modification. 36:580-599
Reviewer 20th September, 2013
Author: Gros et al Year 2012 Record Number
Yes No Unclear
Was the assignment to treatment groups random? Yes
Were participants blinded to the allocation of treatment? Yes
Was the allocator blinded to the allocation to treatment group? Yes
Were the outcome assessors blinded to the allocation of treatment?
Unclear
Were the outcomes of individuals that withdrew from the study included
in the analysis and described? Yes
Were the individuals that assessed the outcomes blind to the allocation
of treatment? Yes
Were the treatment and control groups comparable at entry?
Unclear
Was the same measurement used for all groups?
Unclear
Were the outcomes of the study measured in a reliable manner? Yes
Was sufficient follow up indicated in the study (>80%) Yes
Did the study use appropriate statistical analysis? Yes
Overall appraisal: Include
Comments (for excluded studies only)
Litz, B.T., Engel, C.C., Bryant, R.A., & Papa, A (2008). A Randomized,
Controlled Proof-of-Concept Trial of an Internet-Based,
Therapist-Assisted Self-Management Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress
Disorder Am J Psychiatry164:1676-1684.
Reviewer 20th September, 2013
Author: Litz et al Year 2008 Record Number
Yes No Unclear
Was the assignment to treatment groups random? Yes
Were participants blinded to the allocation of treatment? Yes
Was the allocator blinded to the allocation to treatment group? Yes
Were the outcome assessors blinded to the allocation of treatment?
Unclear
Were the outcomes of individuals that withdrew from the study included
in the analysis and described? Yes
Were the individuals that assessed the outcomes blind to the allocation
of treatment? Yes
Were the treatment and control groups comparable at entry?
No
Was the same measurement used for all groups?
Unclear
Were the outcomes of the study measured in a reliable manner? Yes
Was sufficient follow up indicated in the study (>80%)
Unclear
Did the study use appropriate statistical analysis? Yes
Overall appraisal: Include
Comments (for excluded studies only)
Gross, A., A. Winslett, M. Roberts and C. Gohm (2006). An examination of
sexual violence against college women, Violence Against Women 12 (3):
288–300.
Reviewer 20th September, 2013
Author: Gross, Winslett, and Gohm, Year 2006 Record Number
Yes No Unclear
Was the assignment to treatment groups random?
Unclear
Were participants blinded to the allocation of treatment?
Unclear
Was the allocator blinded to the allocation to treatment group?
Unclear
Were the outcome assessors blinded to the allocation of treatment?
Unclear
Were the outcomes of individuals that withdrew from the study included
in the analysis and described? Yes
Were the individuals that assessed the outcomes blind to the allocation
of treatment?
Unclear
Were the treatment and control groups comparable at entry? Yes
Was the same measurement used for all groups? Yes
Were the outcomes of the study measured in a reliable manner? Yes
Was sufficient follow up indicated in the study (>80%)
Unclear
Did the study use appropriate statistical analysis? Yes
Overall appraisal: EXCLUDE
Comments
While the study dealt primarily with sexual violence against college
women and examined the perpetrator characteristics, racial differences,
and type of sexual violence, it does not examine anything pertaining to
the effectiveness of any therapy on such victims. On the same note,
there are numerous informational gaps in the study, in which case it is
difficult to verify it.
JBI QARI Critical Appraisal Checklist for Interpretive, Critical
Research and Systematic Reviews
TAYLOR, JOANNE E., AND SHANE T. HARVEY. (2009). “Effects of
Psychotherapies With People Who Have Been Sexually Assaulted: A
Meta-Analysis.” Aggression and Violent Behavior 14:273–85.
Reviewer 20th September, 2013
Author : Taylor and Shane Year: 2009 Record Number
Yes No Unclear
Does congruity exist between the research methodology and philosophical
perspective? Yes
Does congruity exist between the research objectives or question and
research methodology? Yes
Does congruity exist between the method of research and the methods used
in the collection of data?
Unclear
Does congruity exist between the research methodology and data
representation & analysis? Yes
Does congruity exist between the research methodology and result
interpretation? Yes
Does the review include a statement that outlines the theoretical or
cultural background of the researcher?
No
Does the paper address the author’s influence and vice-versa?
No
Is there adequate representation of the participants and their voices?
Yes
Do the conclusions made in the research report flowing from the
interpretation and analysis of the data? Yes
Overall appraisal Include
Comments
Ozer, Emily J. Best, Suzanne R. Lipsey, Tami L. Weiss, Daniel S.
(2008). Predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder and symptoms in
adults: A meta-analysis. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research,
Practice, and Policy. American Psychological Association, Vol S(1), ,
3-36
Reviewer 20th September, 2013
Author : Ozer et al Year: 2008 Record Number
Yes No Unclear
Does congruity exist between the research methodology and philosophical
perspective? Yes
Does congruity exist between the research objectives or question and
research methodology? Yes
Does congruity exist between the method of research and the methods used
in the collection of data?
Unclear
Does congruity exist between the research methodology and data
representation & analysis? Yes
Does congruity exist between the research methodology and result
interpretation? Yes
Does the review include a statement that outlines the theoretical or
cultural background of the researcher?
No
Does the paper address the author’s influence and vice-versa?
No
Is there adequate representation of the participants and their voices?
Yes
Do the conclusions made in the research report flowing from the
interpretation and analysis of the data? Yes
Overall appraisal Include
Comments
McFarlane, C.A & Kaplan, I (2012). Evidence-based psychological
interventions for adult survivors of torture and trauma: A 30-year
review. Transcultural Psychiatry 49: 539-567,
Reviewer 20th September, 2013
Author : McFarlane & Kaplan Year: 2012 Record Number
Yes No Unclear
Does congruity exist between the research methodology and philosophical
perspective? Yes
Does congruity exist between the research objectives or question and
research methodology? Yes
Does congruity exist between the method of research and the methods used
in the collection of data? Yes
Does congruity exist between the research methodology and data
representation & analysis? Yes
Does congruity exist between the research methodology and result
interpretation?
Unclear
Does the review include a statement that outlines the theoretical or
cultural background of the researcher?
No
Does the paper address the author’s influence and vice-versa?
Unclear
Is there adequate representation of the participants and their voices?
Yes
Do the conclusions made in the research report flowing from the
interpretation and analysis of the data? Yes
Overall appraisal Include
Comments
VICKERMAN, K AND G. MARGOLIN (2009) Rape treatment outcome research:
Empirical findings and state of the literature. Clinical Psychology
Review, 2009 29: 431-448.
Reviewer 20th September, 2013
Author : Vickerman and Margolin Year: 2009 Record Number
Yes No Unclear
Does congruity exist between the research methodology and philosophical
perspective? Yes
Does congruity exist between the research objectives or question and
research methodology? Yes
Does congruity exist between the method of research and the methods used
in the collection of data? Yes
Does congruity exist between the research methodology and data
representation & analysis?
Unclear
Does congruity exist between the research methodology and result
interpretation? Yes
Does the review include a statement that outlines the theoretical or
cultural background of the researcher?
Unclear
Does the paper address the author’s influence and vice-versa?
No
Is there adequate representation of the participants and their voices?
Unclear
Do the conclusions made in the research report flowing from the
interpretation and analysis of the data? Yes
Overall appraisal Include
Comments
BISSON J, & ANDREW M, (2007). Psychological treatment of post-traumatic
stress disorder (PTSD). Cochrane Database Systematic Review. Vol.3
Reviewer 20th September, 2013
Author : BISSON J, & ANDREW M Year: 2007 Record Number
Yes No Unclear
Does congruity exist between the research methodology and philosophical
perspective? Yes
Does congruity exist between the research objectives or question and
research methodology? Yes
Does congruity exist between the method of research and the methods used
in the collection of data? Yes
Does congruity exist between the research methodology and data
representation & analysis?
Unclear
Does congruity exist between the research methodology and result
interpretation? Yes
Does the review include a statement that outlines the theoretical or
cultural background of the researcher?
No
Does the paper address the author’s influence and vice-versa?
No
Is there adequate representation of the participants and their voices?
Unclear
Do the conclusions made in the research report flowing from the
interpretation and analysis of the data? Yes
Overall appraisal: Include
Comments (for excluded studies only)
TAYLOR, J AND S. HARVEY (2009) Effects of psychotherapy with people who
have been sexually assaulted: A meta-analysis. Aggression and Violent
Behavior 14: 273-285.81 The Campbell Collaboration |
www.campbellcollaboration.org.
Reviewer 20th September, 2013
Author : Taylor and Harvey Year: 2009 Record Number
Yes No Unclear
Does congruity exist between the research methodology and philosophical
perspective? Yes
Does congruity exist between the research objectives or question and
research methodology? Yes
Does congruity exist between the method of research and the methods used
in the collection of data? Yes
Does congruity exist between the research methodology and data
representation & analysis? Yes
Does congruity exist between the research methodology and result
interpretation? Yes
Does the review include a statement that outlines the theoretical or
cultural background of the researcher?
No
Does the paper address the author’s influence and vice-versa?
No
Is there adequate representation of the participants and their voices?
Unclear
Do the conclusions made in the research report flowing from the
interpretation and analysis of the data? Yes
Overall appraisal: Include
Comments (for excluded studies only)
SHEDLER, J. (2010). The efficacy of psychodynamic psychotherapy.
American Psychologist, 65, 98-109
Reviewer 20th September, 2013
Author : Shedler Year: 2010 Record Number
Yes No Unclear
Does congruity exist between the research methodology and philosophical
perspective? Yes
Does congruity exist between the research objectives or question and
research methodology? Yes
Does congruity exist between the method of research and the methods used
in the collection of data? Yes
Does congruity exist between the research methodology and data
representation & analysis? Yes
Does congruity exist between the research methodology and result
interpretation? Yes
Does the review include a statement that outlines the theoretical or
cultural background of the researcher?
Unclear
Does the paper address the author’s influence and vice-versa?
No
Is there adequate representation of the participants and their voices?
Yes
Do the conclusions made in the research report flow from the
interpretation and analysis of the data? Yes
Overall appraisal: Include
Comments (for excluded studies only)
Other Studies excluded from the paper
Pole, N. & Bloomberg-Fretter, P. Using control mastery therapy to treat
major depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Clinical Case
Studies, 2006 5(1):53.
The article revolved around a within-group design, with no comparison
group. On the same note, it was not within the “2007-to date”
category.
Moscarello, R (1991). Posttraumatic stress disorder after sexual
assault: its psychodynamics and treatment. Journal of the American
Academy of Psychoanalysis 19(2): 235-53.
The article was not specific to psychotherapeutic interventions, neither
was there discernible investigations with participants.
CLARKE, S. RIZVI, S. & RESICK, P (2008). Borderline personality
characteristics and treatment outcome in cognitive-behavioral treatments
for PTSD in female rape victims. Behavior Therapy, 39(1): 72-78.
The article did not include trauma-based outcomes.
FOA, E., HEARST-IKEDA, D.&PERRY, K (1995). Evaluation of a brief
cognitive-behavioral programfor the prevention of chronic PTSD in recent
assault victims. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,
199563:948-963.
Reason for exclusion: This study took up a within-group design with no
comparison group. In addition, it was not within the 2007-to-date
category.
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PITMAN, R. K (2008). Effect of post-retrieval propranolol on
psychophysiologic responding during subsequent script-driven traumatic
imagery in post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Psychiatric
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Literature identified through database searching
(n = 27)
Additional records identified through other sources
(n = 17 )
Literature or articles after duplicates eliminated (n = 27)
Records that were screened
(n = 27)
Records excluded
(n = 10)
Full-text articles assessed for eligibility
(n = 17)
Full-text articles excluded
(n = 5)
Studies included in qualitative synthesis
(n = 8)
Studies included in quantitative synthesis (meta-analysis)
(n = 4)

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