Question 1

The autotrophs have the capacity of utilizing solar energy to manufacture food through the process of photosynthesis. During the process of photosynthesis, green plants and some bacteria and algae use the solar energy to produce glucose, sucrose and other compounds that heterotrophs burn in order to obtain energy. When the ruminants eat plants, they obtain cellulose from the plants. Because ruminants have the enzyme cellulose in their digestive tract, the breakdown of cellulose to glucose is possible. After the enzyme cellulose acts on cellulose to release glucose, the ruminants are able to use the glucose for their energy purposes.
The enzyme cellulose has the role of breaking down cellulose into glucose in order to help animals obtain energy for their cellular functions. Animals are not capable of obtaining energy directly like plants because they do not have the ability to absorb sunlight energy and use it for the production of glucose used in the cellular activities. In the animal kingdom, the distribution of the enzyme cellulose is evident in nematodes, herbivores, and arthropods.
Marginal lands have little or no potential for profit and usually have poor soils and other unfavorable conditions. Marginal lands need to be utilized in a sustainable manner grazing on these lands utilizes plants that grow in the lands. Therefore, grazing on these lands is viewed as a sustainable way of utilizing marginal lands because the lands do not go into waste as they become profitable. On the other hand, overgrazing should be avoided. Overgrazing occurs when plants are exposed to intensive grazing for extended period of time. Overgrazing reduces the usefulness and productivity of the land and is one cause of soil erosion.
Gastric fermentation in ruminants leads to the production of methane and carbon dioxide, which constitute the greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gases traps electromagnetic radiation coming from the sun and reflected back from earth, then ultimately absorbed by GHG and release it in form of heat. When these gases absorb light energy, they begin to increase their degrees of freedom (degrees of freedom is a physical science term which means the number of possible movements and the magnitude of these movements). In laymen`s term when light is absorbed by GHS they vibrate greatly, this vibration cause heat. Carbon dioxide is accountable the greatest to global warming. Greenhouse gases permit the sun`s radiation to penetrate the earth`s atmosphere, but prevent the radiation from leaving the atmosphere. It is vital for the earth to release the radiation so as to prevent overheating. The increase in temperature causes a change in the climate patterns.
Question 2
Mutation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene becomes causes the structure of the gene to change. Genes are the building blocks of life. They are segments of DNA which contain instructions for the development and functioning of all living organisms. The structure usually changes through the deletion of three DNA nucleotides. The mutation by deletion leads to the deletion of phenylalanine amino acid at position 508 of the protein sequence. This alters the functioning of the cell as the mutated CFTR gene encoding the CFTR protein is not capable of functioning properly as a channel for the movement of chloride ions. This affects the functioning of the lungs and pancreas as the water and salt balance on the se epithelial surfaces is not balanced since the chloride ions are capable of moving in and out of the cells. Therefore, the structure of a mutated CFTR gene explains the physiological effects of cystic fibrosis in the pancreas and pancreas because the structure makes it difficult for the CFTR protein to maintain a balance of the chloride ions on these epithelial surfaces.
Question 3
Homeostasis is a term which means to stay constant or the same. Particularly, homeostasis the method by which an organism sustains a stabilized internal environment regardless of the changes that are happening in the external environment. The cellular fluid present in organisms is very significant in this procedure. The human body is made up water in which mineral ions, gases, vitamins, wastes, and foods are dissolved. For the body to remain healthy, the quantity of water, the pH, the concentrations of substances, and the temperature of cellular fluid must remain constant. To maintain a steady internal environment necessitates the work of every organ system in the body. Therefore, homeostasis is a theory that links all organ systems of the body.
Living organisms need to maintain a stable PH. This is exceedingly vital since it ensures survival of the living organisms without maintaining a stable PH, the living organisms will definitely die. A stable PH ensures that all the cellular activities in the body of living organisms are carried out without any problem. In case, there is unfavorable PH in the body of a living organism, cell functioning is stopped leading to the death of the living organism. This implies that living organisms must maintain a stable PH in order to maintain survival. Lysosomes should maintain a stable PH so as to support the functioning of enzymes that break down cellular debris and waste materials. The lysosome maintains this stable PH by pumping protons from the cytosol across cell membrane via proton pumps and via chloride ion channels.
Homeostasis in the cell has five basic requirements: nutrition, oxygen, hydration, constant temperature and pressure. Nutrients must circulate into the cell via the cell membrane. Once nutrients are in the cytoplasm, they are used for various reasons in different organelles. The nucleus is responsible for the production of proteins from amino acids. Proteins are then broken down into amino acids. DNA in the nucleus leads the reorganization of amino acids to produce proteins essential for enzymes as well as structural elements. Oxygen is vital for the second part of the cell respiration response which happens in the cell mitochondria. Oxygen is utilized in oxidative phosphorylation. Oxygen is also essential in catalyzing the electron transport chain. Hydration pertains to the amount of water present in the cells. The cells in the body are isotonic which means that there is balance between the cells and plasma. If plasma loses water because of too much perspiration or urination, the cells in the body becomes hypertonic. Thus excreting water out of the blood cells and plasma. In a constant pressure, the cells need to be in homeostasis. When external pressure drops, the water present in the cells diminishes since it empties out of the cells. When pressure is too high, cells would take in water and eventually burst. In a constant temperature, the internal temperature of the cells performs chemical responses that are essential for life. When temperature and pH constantly change, the cells eventually die.
Question 4
Regulation of genes can occur through various mechanisms. One such mechanism entails the altering of the specificity of RNA polymerase for a certain promoter making it less or more likely to bind them. Another mechanism entails activators enhancing the interaction amid RNA polymerase and a certain promoter, which encourage the expression of the gene. Activators increase the attraction of polymerase for a promoter. In addition, another mechanism involves general transcription factors positioning RNA polymerase at the start of a protein coding sequence and releasing the polymerase in order to transcribe the mRNA. Different cell types regulate gene expression differently cell type specific expression of genes is achieved through combining transcription factors (TFs) to the sequence elements in the regulatory regions. Abnormal gene regulation results to genetic diseases such as the cancer of the immune system cells. This hinders the functioning of the immune system cells leading to the death of an organism.
Question 5
Hunger is constantly increasing in some parts of the world. Such crisis has negatively affected women and children in poor society. Hunger has worsened because of the present global economic downturn as well as increasing costs of foods. In addition, imprudent agricultural and trade guidelines have added to the food crisis. At present, the world generates sufficient supply of foods to nourish its inhabitants. Nonetheless, unequal distribution implies that a limited number of individuals are able to have more than enough consumption while several others are suffering from food scarcity. Hunger can be dealt with using the biological perspective, where the production of genetically modified foods can be encouraged so as to increase food security. The government and the public must realize the diverse needs for heterogeneous pool of individuals in the agrarian aspect and policies concerning elimination of hunger in order to sustain food security. Access and availability of food is capable of eliminating the problem of hunger. The problem can also be solved through theological perspective, where individuals that are well up should help the poor. This will help in ending poverty, which implies people will be able to afford food. In addition, the problem can also be solved using a philosophical insight, where people should focus on the perspective of creating equality. The perspective of equality in a society will help in sharing resources equally among individuals, a move that will help in eliminating hunger since all individuals will have resources that they can use to produce food.
Question 6
The blood of the Antarctic ice fish has no hemoglobin, but the fish is capable of surviving without hemoglobin because it has a large heart and utilizes blood plasma in circulating oxygen throughout the body. The evolution in a cold, oxygen rich environment helped the fish to relax selective pressure in maintaining the expression of oxygen binding proteins. One chief element in the success of the Antarctic ice fish is its evolution at cold temperature. In case, the evolution occurred at a warm temperature, the loss of transport and oxygen binding proteins could have severely compromised delivery leading to a lethal mutation.
The baleen whales do not possess teeth, but the early baleen whales had teeth that had been inherited from their ancestors. Through evolution, changes have occurred to the baleen whales making them lack teeth they possess baleen plates for filtering water and food. The presence of teeth in the ancestors and the absence of the same in the modern adult baleen whale can only be explained by evolution.
The Pax-6 gene that stimulates eye development is present in insects, reptiles, birds and mammals. In case a human version of the gene becomes inserted into a fly, it will have the capacity of triggering the development of the eye of an insect. This is because this constitutes a homologous gene that is, the gene controls the same trait. Hence, that of a human will be capable of triggering eye development in an insect.

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