PROJECT MANAGEMENT

When a construction project is successfully completed, credit for the
outcome goes to the project manager. This is because successful
completion of a project relies on the competency of a project manager.
Planning, controlling and scheduling of resources, functions, and
operations in a construction project are some of the taxing tasks
professionals construction mangers face. The managers often apply
different techniques to overcome these problems such as Precedence
Diagramming Method (PDM), Critical Path Method (CPM) and Program
Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT). Nevertheless, these outdated
techniques are limited to dynamic control and monitoring of projects.
Efficient project management comes with a variety of advantages such as
developing a system that allows several activities to happen alongside
and asynchronously. On the same note, it makes it possible to improve
project planning with the help of behavioral properties such as
boundedness and reachability. Moreover, it facilitates rescheduling and
regenerating of activities. In order for a project to become
successful, it has to reach a given quality, end within defined time
limit, and use a predetermined budget. These tasks are the roles of
project managers. This essay is an analysis of project management
skills application, and challenges project managers’ face. The
research will then examine methods that project managers can use to
overcome technical issues that may arise when managing a project.
Project data Analysis
Purpose of building Offices
Width of building 14 m
Length of building 40 m
Height of building 42 m
Foundation Reinforced concrete pile cap supported on piles
Framework Comprised of structural steel frame building with r.c. lift
core
Fire protection to steel Fire resistant coating
Facade / Perimeter wall Steel cladding
Roof cover Steel cladding
Founding level Piles to be found at suitable soil or rock stratum and
pile cap to be clear at 2m
below existing ground level
Testing Requirement All tests for verifying the design and material
requirements shall be
Carried out by a HKOLAS laboratory
Project data presentation
Project Panning
This project will begin through drafting the actual building in the
paper. After the project manager acquires actual drawing of the office
block to building to be constructed, the next step would be examining
the ground where the building will stand. It is the responsibility of
the project manager to ensure that land, material and skilled labor is
readily available by the commencement date of the project in order to
ensure the project will be completed on time. By the end of the
project, the manager should present a complete 8- storey building
measuring 40 x 14 x 42 meters. The building will feature concrete
foundation, while the framework of the building will consist of
framework steel. Both the perimeter wall and roofing cover will feature
steel cladding. The project will take duration of up to fourteen
months. This is because the ground where the foundation is composed of
cotton soil. Special technology will be required in order to fortify
the soil such that it will not remain strong in all seasons. The cost of
constructing a one square meter of the office block will cost $ 320.
Similarly, the project will require duration of 540 days to be complete.
The project will commence on 2nd December, 2013. At the beginning, the
project will start with 15 permanent employees and 35 contracted skilled
employees. There will also be an extra 50 unskilled persons. The
permanent staff will increase to twenty from the third storey and 25 by
the sixth storey. The skilled contracted staff members will increase to
41 by third storeys and 50 by six storeys. According to Gido and
Clements (2009: 19), the work of the skilled employees keeps increasing
as a building height increases. This will help to prevent overworking or
slowing down the construction speed of the project as the amount of
storeys increase. However, inexperienced staff will remain constant
throughout. This duration is inclusive of 15 extra days to cater for any
inconveniences that may disrupt regular work schedule such as a strike,
holidays, or bad weather. Employees will be working for six days in a
week. This delay in completion will come about because all the materials
that will be used in the construction process will have to undergo
testing at a HKOLAS laboratory in order to approve their quality.
Average project cost
1m2 construction cost equals $ 320
Average project size is 14 x 20 x 42 = 11,760 m2
This implies that the construction project will cost 220 x 11,760 =
$3,763,200
Contractor fees: 25% = 25/100 x 3,763,200 = $ 940, 8000
Architectural fees: 6 % = 6/100 x 3,763,200 = $225, 792
Total project costs in US $:
Cost of raw materials 3,763,200
Contractor fees 940, 800
Architectural fees 225, 792
Labor 2, 225, 792
Total 7, 155, 784
Project Planning and Control Over Various Aspects of Project Management
Knowledge
Project workflow diagram
Controlling Various Aspects Of The Project
In order to establish effective control over this project, the project
manger will require sound organization of responsibilities. Managers are
able to control jobs under them through subdividing into various
sections. Each section should have a supervisor who will be directly in
charge over the employees doing. This person should have skill in the
given field so that he or she can direct individuals in charge of the
task. Skilled managers also make short and long-term goals. When all
the short-term goals are achieved as desired, they help to achieve
long-term ambitions. The key goals that every project has to accomplish
in order to be deemed successful include time, cost and scope. These
factors are also called ‘project management triangle.’ Irrespective
of the size of a construction project, it can only become efficient if
it meets the predetermined outcome, budget and time limits.
Project management triangle
Many experienced project members are able to predict these factors
because they are interconnected. For instance, a manager can increase
the speed at which a project is accomplished through pumping in extra
cash in order to acquire extra resources. Lewis (2006: 4) defines
project management as application of skills, knowledge, techniques, and
tools in a project in order to accomplish specified goals. This implies
that project managers accomplish their jobs through integration and
application of project management practices of planning, initiating,
implementing, tracking and controlling, and finalizing. This process
outlines four essential tasks for a project manger:
Establishing requirements
Identifying apparent and attainable goals
Harmonizing the contending demands for time, quality, cost, and scope
Adapting plans, approach and specifications to varying expectations and
concerns of different stakeholders
Project Management Process
This process is classified in a couple of sections, including planning
and controlling.
Planning:
This refers to creation of an implementable plan that explains various
tasks in a project, in respect to the terms ‘when’, ‘who does
what’, ‘to what specification’, and ‘at what cost’. Project
managers should provide details of each of strategies in this level in
order to be able to achieve efficient an effective project management.
The main things that a plan outline should have include:
Acquiring approval to carry on
Summarize project responsibilities
Creating a project work breakdown structure (WBS)
Create a statement for work (SOW) for project chores
Determine project organization
Approximating
Communication structure allocate responsible staff to project errands
Establishing dependencies designing dependency network
Assigning resources and responsibilities
Procurement preparation – evaluating what and when to purchase
Using Dependency Networks
These diagrams are essential for the calculation of various features in
a diagram. The Gantt chart is among the most popular networks. It is can
be effectively used in the calculation of activities in projects where
estimating of time is possible. This diagram will help to accomplish the
following tasks:
Determination of the critical path – shortest duration the project can
be accomplished
Establish errands that may cause a give risk
Establish periods when several chores might be taking place concurrently
To improve the managers` understanding of the project
Network diagram representing start and completion of the first phase of
the project within three months
Project Control
The manager requires maintaining effective control of the project in
order to maintain control and coordinate the development of the venture.
This process mainly involves controlling cost, quality, and time.
Quality plans define project checkpoints, user involvement, working
procedures and methods, and defining standards for review and
supervision. Skilled managers emphasize on effective control since
alterations might be necessitated by acts of God, change in management,
alteration in requirements, rescheduled deadline, some planning
assumptions might be wrong, human mistakes, and reduce the budget.
Project managers shoulder the responsibility of ensuring that changes
that happen in one section is compensated to prevent it from changing
the original planning of the entire project.
ii)Environmental Management System (EMS)
EMS process
EMS is comprehensive documented, systematic, and planned policy that
project managers use to ensure maximum environment conservation. It
contains organizational structure, schedules, and development resources,
and approaches for executing and upholding environmental protection
policies. Essentially, project managers require developing environmental
conservation measures in advance. This will help to limit pollution that
may result from the execution of a project. In some cases, the
activities, products, and raw materials that are used in the
construction project can cause harmful impact to the environment.
However, EMS incorporates sections such as policies and objectives,
record management, training, and inspection results. The combination of
these factors helps to protect the environment from potential
pollutants. Project managers attain these steps through developing
environmental regulations that mirror environmental commitment
implemented in a project. For example, the manager in this project is
ensuring that the raw materials used in the project are safe and up to
standard through ensuring that, Hong Kong Laboratory Accreditation
Scheme (HOKLAS) endorse them. This will help in ensuring that the
resulting house will be safe and free from risks of collapsing.
Examples of materials that require testing in order to avoid causing
pollution in the environment include steel reinforcement, fire resisting
products, reinforcement couplers, and curtain wall systems. The manager
should appoint individuals in charge of the EMS program. In addition,
skilled construction project managers also develop schemes for
evaluating efficiency of their EMS programs towards restraining
potential environmental hazards.
Quality Management System (QMS)
QMS are strategies dedicated on achieving quality policies and
objectives. This implies that construction project managers should
create policies that enable them to achieve their clients’ needs and
wants. The project manager should outline it in the project development
structure. Processes, policies, and procedures required for executing
quality management. The objective of QMS is defining, communicating, and
controlling the desired outcome of a project. Project managers should
predict possible deviations, and then put in place techniques for
addressing potential quality problems that may arise. Quality control
measures used in project management are constant hence, managers can
use one policy in several projects.
For instance, Works Bureau passed a policy in 1994 that requires
companies supplying concrete in government projects to be endorsed by
QSPSC. This helps to ensure that companies deliver quality and up to
standard concrete and other supplies to the clients. Hong Kong
emphasizes on accreditation of construction material in order to ensure
development of an informed economy. Project managers should develop QMS
guidelines aiming to control staff members, quality of raw materials,
creation of the foundation, and quality of the concrete mix meets the
specification required in Hong Kong.
iii) Issues in Risk Management Likely Encountered in construction
projects
Project managers face numerous legal challenges when handling
construction projects in Hong Kong. For instance, they require
controlling air pollution. The pollution may result from some form of
oils and dust. Suitable measures should be put in place to overcome this
problem. Some equipment used in construction cause extreme noise. On
the same note, project managers require establishing effective waste
management policies in order to avoid toxic chemicals used in the
construction of polluting the environment and water. For example, oil
paints are dangerous when they are discarded in clean water sources as
well as, soils with living organisms. Flammable cans and other
equipment in a construction are other potential sources of risks.
Project managers should ensure to employ necessary precautions that can
help to restrain possible problems. For example, a no-smoking policy
should be executed within the vicinity where petroleum and other fuels
that will be used by cars in the region should be executed. The
occupational safety and health ordinance is another risk management
policy that aims at providing better health and safety of employees when
they are working. Project managers should develop plans and measures
that aim at reducing the risk of employees in a work environment.
Examples of suitable policies that the project manager in this case
sample can include making it compulsory for all the employees to dress
in full safety gear after they report to work. This includes wearing
helmets, safety boots with steel toes, an apron, and nose mask. The
health of employees is negatively affected by strong paint smell and
cement dust. However, employees’ safety is assured when they wear
protective outfits when reporting to the work. The project managers
should ensure to provide free protective gear to the individuals without
the defined gear. Similarly, people working with noisy machines should
wear earmuffs, while those working worth bright lights such as welders
should wear appropriate dark glasses to protect them in their eyesight.
Hazard recording documents
Methods of Controlling These Problems
Self-automatic water spraying system for suppressing dust
Project managers use diverse strategies to overcome issues that may
arise in a construction project. This can conclude ensuring that all the
employees have the appropriate safety gear such as aprons, gloves, and
helmets. In addition, there should be a well-defined method of recording
accidents such that patients would be encouraged to seek medical
assistance immediately they get into accidents. Besides, managers should
emphasize training of employees. The cost of training staff members is
lower than what it would cost to cater for treatment of several injured
employees. In addition, project managers should emphasize that their
staff keeps comprehensive records. Several companies suppress dust
through mounting hose-spring water.
In summary, project management refers to a discipline that deals with
managing, planning, and organizing resources in order to complete
defined objectives in a project successfully. On the other hand,
environmental management systems (EMS) are detailed policies that
project managers must develop in order to comply with environmental
conservation measures. This can include sewerage control, air and water
pollution, and eyesight protection of the employees among other
measures. On the other hand, Quality Management System (QMS) are
strategies used by project managers to manage changes that may occur
during execution of a project.
Bibliography
GIDO, J., & CLEMENTS, J. P. (2009). Successful project management.
Mason, OH, South-Western Cengage Learning.
LEWIS, J. P. (2006). Fundamentals of project management. New York,
American Management Association. HYPERLINK
“http://proquest.safaribooksonline.com/9780814408797”
http://proquest.safaribooksonline.com/9780814408797 .
Griffith, Q., Watson, P. (2003). Construction Management- Principles and
practice. Palgrave MacMillan.
HARRIS, F., MCCAFFER, R. (2006). Modern Construction Management. 6th
Ed.Blackwell Science.
NOKES, S., KELLY, S. (2007). The Definitive Guide to Project Management.
The Fast Track to Getting the Job Done On Time and On Budget. Prentice
Hall.
KERZNER, H. (2009). Project Management- A systems approach to planning,
scheduling, and controlling. 10th Ed. John Wiley & Sons Inc.
LEVY, S. (2006). Project Management in Construction. 5th Ed. McGraw Hill
Education
GITLOW, H. S. (1999). Quality management systems: a practical guide.
Boca Raton, FL, St. Lucie Press.
TINSLEY, S., & PILLAI, L. (2006). Environmental management systems:
understanding organizational drivers and barriers. London, Earthscan.
FREEMAN-BELL G. AND BALKWILL J. (1996,) Management in Engineering –
Principles and Practice. Prentice Hall.
Lau, W.H. (2013). Project Management. University of Central Lancashire,
Teaching Notes
Griffith, Q., Watson, P. (2003). Construction Management- Principles
and practice. Palgrave MacMillan. Pp. 21 -23.
TINSLEY, S., & PILLAI, L. (2006). Environmental management systems:
understanding organizational drivers and barriers. London, Earthscan.
Pp. 12-14
FREEMAN-BELL G. AND BALKWILL J. (1996,) Management in Engineering –
Principles and Practice. Prentice Hall. P. 29
Griffith, Q., Watson, P. (2003). Construction Management- Principles
and practice. Palgrave MacMillan. Pp. 6.
LEVY, S. (2006). Project Management in Construction. 5th Ed. McGraw
Hill Education pp. 45- 47
Lau, W.H. (2013). Project Management. University of Central Lancashire,
Teaching Notes pp. 10
LEVY, S. (2006). Project Management in Construction. 5th Ed. McGraw
Hill Education pp. 5-8
KERZNER, H. (2009). Project Management- A systems approach to planning,
scheduling, and controlling. 10th Ed. John Wiley & Sons Inc. pp. 22-26
Lau, W.H. (2013). Project Management. University of Central Lancashire,
Teaching Notes p. 76
HARRIS, F., MCCAFFER, R. (2006). Modern Construction Management. 6th
Ed.Blackwell Science. Pp. 99 -103
NOKES, S., KELLY, S. (2007). The Definitive Guide to Project
Management. The Fast Track to Getting the Job Done On Time and On
Budget. Prentice Hall. Pp. 68-69
GITLOW, H. S. (1999). Quality management systems: a practical guide.
Boca Raton, FL, St. Lucie Press.p.17
FREEMAN-BELL G. AND BALKWILL J. (1996,) Management in Engineering –
Principles and Practice. Prentice Hall. Pp. 29
Lau, W.H. (2013). Project Management. University of Central Lancashire,
Teaching Notes pp. p. 109
KERZNER, H. (2009). Project Management- A systems approach to planning,
scheduling, and controlling. 10th Ed. John Wiley & Sons Inc. pp. 37
PROJECT MANAGEMENT PAGE * MERGEFORMAT
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