Introduction for a Research Hypothesis
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Amphetamines are drugs that produce feelings of power and energy, increase activity and alertness, and reduce hunger, fatigue, depression, and sleepiness (Che, Cui, and Tan et al, 2013). A restriction had been placed on the medical use of amphetamines because their dangers far outweigh their value. Their medical value is significant for treatment of narcolepsy, or involuntary sleep, for certain forms of epilepsy, and for controlling hyperactive children (Che, Cui, and Tan et al, 2013). The focus of this study is to determine the impacts of amphetamine use on school aged children. Amphetamine is a stimulant thus it increases hyperactivity among children. However, withdrawal from amphetamine can deliver adverse effects. Hence, amphetamine use is related to an increase in depression and anxiety in school aged children.
The theoretical implication of the study is that Amphetamines, being a β- phenylisopropyl amines, has various biological effects. Amphetamines can be taken orally and remain effective for relatively long periods of time after they have been ingested. They concentrate in the brain and cerebrospinal fluid. Amphetamines result in the development of tolerance in users. Tolerance is shown when the same dose of drugs induces a decreased response with repeated use. Tolerance to the many effects of amphetamines may develop to varying degrees and at different rates. In the treatment of narcolepsy and hyperactivity, once an adequate dose is achieved, there may be little need to increase the dose for many years. Withdrawal from amphetamines produces fatigue, more sound and prolonged sleep, changes in sleeping patterns, severe emotional depression, and increased appetite.
In a study conducted by Che, Cui, and Tan et al (2013), it was found that there is great possibility for individuals to become addicted to amphetamine. Researchers also found that amphetamine abstinence reduced the locomotor activity as well as exploratory behavior of rats (Che, Cui, and Tan et al 2013). Thus, the authors concluded that amphetamine abstinence produced depression in rats. In a cross-sectional study conducted by Bao, Qiu, and Yan et al (2013) concerning the depressive symptoms of amphetamine, the group discovered that depression is the primary syndrome of amphetamine-type stimulants (Bao, Qiu, and Yan et al 2013). Briere and Fallu et al (2012) studied the effect of meth/amphetamine in depressive symptoms and it was found out that the substance is associated with depression. Kay-Lambkin and Baker et al (2011) performed a randomized controlled experiment to determine depression reactions to methamphetamine use and discovered that over seventy percent of the respondents had depression due to significant use of the drug (Kay-Lambkin and Baker et al 2011).
This study is going to determine whether amphetamine use is related to an increase in depression and anxiety in school-aged children. The rationale behind this study is to curb the problem of depression and anxiety in school-aged children. Recent studies reveal the negative effects of amphetamine use. One of these negative effects is depression upon withdrawal from the drug.
Unit of Analysis: School-aged children who have withdrawn from amphetamine use
Dependent Variable: Depression and Anxiety
Conceptual Model Equation: Depression and Anxiety = CHILDREN + LENGTH OF AMPHETAMINE USE
H0: The greater the length of amphetamine use, the greater incidence of depression and anxiety is experienced by the children after cessation.
H1: The lesser the length of amphetamine use, the lesser incidence of depression and anxiety is experienced by the children after cessation.
Data: The data will be gathered through school clinic records.
Bao, Y., Qiu, Y., Yan, S., Jia, Z., Li, S., Lian, Z., & … Liu, Z. (2013). Pattern of Drug Use and Depressive Symptoms among Amphetamine Type Stimulants Users in Beijing and Guangdong Province, China. Plos ONE, 8(4), 1-7. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060544
Brière, F., Fallu, J., Janosz, M., & Pagani, L. (2012). Prospective associations between meth/amphetamine (speed) and MDMA (ecstasy) use and depressive symptoms in secondary school students. Journal Of Epidemiology And Community Health, 66(11), 990-994. doi:10.1136/jech-2011-200706
Che, Y., Cui, Y., Tan, H., Andreazza, A., Young, L. L., & Wang, J. (2013). Abstinence from repeated amphetamine treatment induces depressive-like behaviors and oxidative damage in rat brain. Psychopharmacology, 227(4), 605-614.
Dandekar, M., Singru, P., Kokare, D., & Subhedar, N. (2009). Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide plays a role in the manifestation of depression: social isolation and olfactory bulbectomy models reveal unifying principles.Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication Of The American College Of Neuropsychopharmacology, 34(5), 1288-1300. doi:10.1038/npp.2008.201
Kay-Lambkin, F., Baker, A., Lee, N., Jenner, L., & Lewin, T. (2011). The influence of depression on treatment for methamphetamine use. The Medical Journal Of Australia,195(3), S38-S43.
Introduction for a Research Hypothesis