Instructor`s

1. Article 231 was part of the Treaty of Versailles. The Germans were angry because they believed they felt they were lured. The Germans were mad about the Treaty of Versailles because it wounded their pride. The Germans stated that they should not be blamed for the war. In addition, included in the Treated of Versailles were as follows: The Germans should accept full responsibility for the war and must pay reparations (over 30 year period sum of what would be about $390 billion in current dollars). The Germans must also cede all colonial territories.
2. In 1920, during the governance of Woodrow Wilson, none of the American people supported him. Wilson pushed for dubious mandate as well as aggressive reforms. In addition, Wilson wanted the virtual nationalization of the United States` economy during the First World War.
3. Totalitarianism is the total penetration of daily life by the state as well as bypassing other channels of existing authority structures such as the Church legal institutions local & family structures schools and other associations. The goals of totalitarianism include elevation of the state to cult status and that the government will take over all industry control and decision-making.
4. Wilhelm II was the one responsible in sending the German Asiatic Squadron to Manila Bay, ostensibly to protect German interests in the Philippines. Posing as a protector of the Muslims, Wilhelm II was also able to win the friendship of the Ottoman sultan, who readily provided him economic privileges in Turkey and other parts of the Ottoman Empire. The Weimar Republic was established after the collapse of the German Empire. The republic was doomed to fail because it came at the darkest period of German history when the country`s economy was paralyzed and the people demoralized.
5. Beer Hall Putsch is also recognized as the Munich Putsch. It was an attempt to hold a revolution but eventually failed. This happened on November 9, 1923. The coup d`├ętat tried to seize power in Bavaria and Munich.
6. Joseph Goebbels was a Minister of Propaganda to Adolf Hitler. He was one of the most significant and powerful individuals in Nazi Germany. Goebbels was offered the responsibility of establishing Nazi provision in Berlin.
7. Historikerstreit was a political and intellectual controversy. It started in West Germany and was focused on the manner to which the Holocaust ought to be understood in history.
8. Defeat in the First World War led to the collapse of the German Empire. Over its ruins was established the Weimar Republic. In the midst of Germany`s troubles, Adolf Hitler, who had fought in the German army during the war appeared on the political scene. Hitler entered politics and within a few years his Nazi organization became the largest political party in the republic.
9. The Hitler Jugend was the NAZI party`s youth movement. The organization placed emphasis on physical training, activism, NAZI ideology, particularly racial concepts and nationalism, and complete compliance to Hitler as well as the NAZI Party. The organization became the country`s sweeping youth movement.
10. The Social Democratic Party was not supported by the Germans because it suppressed the rights of the people. The Social Democratic Party was recognized as a Marxist party. Nonetheless, the Social Democratic Party experienced a major change in policies replicated in the dissimilarities amid the Heidelberg Program which obliged the conversion of the capitalist system to social ownership.
11. Anti-Semitism is about hatred, prejudice, and discrimination. Anti-Semitism is against the Jewish people. Adolf Hitler`s compulsive hatred for Jews was triggered by his involvements after the First World War. Hitler believed that races have different biological make-up.
12. The Night of the Long Knives was a defining moment in Hitler`s Germany history. Hitler made clear that he was the highest leader of Germany and therefore he has the privilege to be judge as well as jury, and has the influence to resolve whether the public die or live.
13. The complete name of NAZI Party was Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP). To uphold the supposed strength and purity of a claimed `master race`, the Nazis pursued to eliminate or execute exclusionary separation upon “asocial and degenerate groups that involved: Romani, blacks, Jews, homosexuals, the mentally and physically handicapped, political opponents, and Jehovah`s Witnesses.
14. So as to compensate the massive costs of the First World War, Germany deferred the convertibility of its currency into gold. In 1921, Germany started to purchase foreign currency with yet that merely augmented the speed of collapse in the price of the Mark. The lower the mark dropped in international markets, the greater the amount of marks was required to buy the foreign currency demanded by the Reparations Commission.
15. Fascism did not exercise dictatorship but it took various forms of an anti-communist, anti-liberal, anti-capitalist, anti-democratic, anti-rational, and anti-Semitic. Totalitarianism is not fascism. Fascism has its beginnings in the dominance of a group or an individual and closely resembles totalitarianism while communism is distinct from both philosophies as it believes in a stateless and classless society. Totalitarianism and fascism believe in unrestrained power in the hands of a group or an individual and in constraint of thought and action of the people in the community.
16. Government taking over of decision-making and government control Government taking over sources of information and Government creation of pseudo-scientific rationale.
17. Initially, Hitler wanted to join in Architecture and art but was rejected. His father sent him to join a military service. The First World War gave him the opportunity to test his power. Hitler enjoyed the army life. From then on, Hitler was promoted from one position to another until he became the leader of the Nazi government.
18. NSDAP – Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, also known as the Nazi Party. It was a political party headed by Hitler.
The SS – the Schutzstaffel Hitler`s personal bodyguards.
19. Article 48 – Weimar Constitution
The SA – Sturm Abteilung the Storm Section Hitler`s private army.
20. The `stab-in-the-back` legend was among Weimar Germany`s right wing nationalists after the end of First World War. The Weimar officials were called “traitors” of the German Military.
21. Adolf Hitler grew up with only a secondary education and a number of frustrated ambitions. He began working in Vienna as an artist but lacked talent. He volunteered for the German Army during the First World War. He became a corporal, was wounded, and won the highest decoration of an Iron Cross due to fake documents. Filled with bitterness when the Allies won the war, Hitler founded the National Sociality Part. Hitler controlled the Germans as belonging to the master race and blamed all of Germany`s problems on the Jews, communists, socialists, and democrats. Hitler proclaimed himself Fuhrer and Reich Chancellor of Germany. He sprang one surprise after another on the world, leading the Second World War. Democracy is about having the freedom of expression. When Hitler declared himself chancellor, this led to the Second World War which ultimately put an end to Hitler`s regime.

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