Institution Affiliation

Summer periods are marked by long holiday breaks whose main activities
are non-academically orientated. According to Barnholtz (2008), a lot of
students experience losses in learning during summer periods, because
rather than spending time on educational activities, students tend to
get involved in activities which are purely for fun. 
Sun, (2011) also noted that majority of learners had more difficulty in
integrating classroom concepts in the early days after their return from
vacation, and that this condition improved gradually with time. His
studies suggested that about 55% of students had difficulty in
integrating science concepts during this time and that they performed
extremely well in non-science disciplines. Bass (1988) also found that
time away from school during the summer holidays may cause students to
reduce a vast extent of skills and academic knowledge. For instance, the
reading skills of students decrease over the summer (Bass). In a recent
study, Karl et al. (2007) and Allington et al. (2010) identified summer
learning programs as effective tools in enhancing academic retention. 
The purpose of this research is to determine if giving summer homework
is effective in reducing incidents of academic knowledge loss among 4th,
5th, 6thgrade students in Clara Barton School in Hackensack, New Jersey.
The secondary aim of the study is to identify any discrepancies between
the normal curricular homework and the summer homework in their
effectiveness on academic retention, and establish if there is a
relationship between the work teachers assign to learn during summer
holidays and the guideline as per the course content.
Definition of the Problem
™ performance in Clara Barton School in Hackensack at the beginning of
the school year has been shown to be consistently reduced as compared to
performance at the end of academic year 2009-2010 (, 2001).
According to these studies, the Proficiency in Language and Arts for
Grade 4 in the instructional group rated 70.0% general education.
Further scores in the same subject area in 2012 were 66.0% for general
education (, 2001).Grade 4 Proficiency in Mathematics and
above by instructional group score for 2011 was 79.3% general education.
In 2012 the score for Mathematics general education students was 77.4%
Students [DCK14] who engaged in nonacademic activities experience
diminished academic skills (Eunice, 2009). Allington et al. (2010) found
that as students return to school, some have forgotten basic Reading and
calculation concepts learned in the previous school year. 
On the other hand, there is a general disagreement between parents and
educators about the usefulness and appropriateness of assigning homework
to students during summer (Barnholtz, 2008). Most parents assert that
this season should be left for children to refresh their minds before
reinstating for the next term of learning.
Evidence of the Problem at the Local Level 
In the study that aimed to determine learning loss and discrepancies
between the normal curricular homework and the summer homework in their
effectiveness, on academic retention, it was found that among students
at Clara Barton School Hackensack, New Jersey, there is reduction in
knowledge in the beginning of the school year.
Identification of reasons behind the reduced performance of the students
is the main objective of the study. The study established that parents
held varying opinions on this subject, whereby some of them believed
that homework during summer vacations were of great help to the
learners, while others expressed their feeling of its relevance. In
fact, these results supported the findings of an earlier research that
students fail to complete homework packets during summer vacations due
to a lack of support from parents (Eunice, 2009).
Allington, R. L., & McGill-Franzen, A. (2010). Summer reading: Closing
the rich/poor reading achievement gap. New York, NY: Teachers College
Bass M.(1988). Learning vacations. Princeton, N.J: Peterson`s Guides
Barnholtz. G (2008).Ending the homework hassle: Understanding,
preventing, and solving school performance problems. Kansas City:
Andrews and McMeel.
Eunice, K. (2009). Learning, work and social responsibility: Challenges
for lifelong learning in a global age. Dordrecht: Springer.
Karl et al. (2007). Problem-based learning in higher education: Untold
stories. Buckingham [England: Society for Research into Higher Education
& Open University Press., (2001). Essential readings on struggling learners. Newark,
DE: International Reading Association.
Sun S., (2011). (2011). Social and emotional aspects of learning.
Oxford: Elsevier.
Karl et al. (2007). Problem-based learning in higher education: Untold
stories. Buckingham [England: Society for Research into Higher Education
& Open University Press.



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