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Innovation and Creativity cannot be developed in some organizations
Creativity and innovation are necessary in organizations because of
increasing competition in the market. Thus, it is necessary that
organizations keep reinventing themselves through constant innovation so
as to stay ahead of other competitors. However, for proper competition
to take place, organizations must create enabling environments for their
employees to express their creativity. Creativity and innovation also
enable organizations to respond effectively to changes in the market.
This can greatly be achieved by allowing the input of employees in
problem- solving and decision- making. However, some organizations do
not give room for this creativity which has a negative impact on morale.
This paper discusses theories that explain innovation and creativity in
relation to how innovation and creativity cannot develop in some
Innovation and creativity are two different aspects of an organization,
but they are closely related. Creativity in organizations can be
defined, as the capability to generate applicable solutions to arising
problems in organizations. This gives the organizations an advantage
over competitors especially in changes that are continually changing
(Duxbuy 2012). Innovation, on the other hand, is the process of coming
up with new ideas with regard to existing products or services.
Creativity is considered important for innovation to occur. However,
creativity does not always lead to innovation. There are two major
theories of creativity and innovation in organizations which explain the
process of creativity and innovation. They all focus on people,
processes, place, and product. These theories are componential theory of
creativity, and evolutionary perspective. This focus, on the environment
of work and individual characteristics of employees in an organization
The componential theory focuses on the social and psychological
components of individuals. It identifies three main characteristics of
individuals that are the basis of creativity. They are domain- relevant
skills, creativity-relevant cognitive processes, and intrinsic
motivation (Amabile 2012). The intrinsic motivation is considered the
most significant because it comes from within the individual. This is
because it is the personal motivation to pursue difficult tasks, be a
risk taker, and overcome obstacles especially those that come with new
introductions. An intrinsically motivated person can overcome difficult
tasks creatively while enjoying the process.
The positive attitude is essential in any organization as individuals
are able to overcome challenges with little difficulty. People who work
in socially favourable environment are intrinsically motivated. This is
achieved, through team work, diversification of skills, freedom to apply
knowledge and skills at work, and managers who encourage implementation
and application of new ideas. A favourable working environment naturally
creates a drive to be more engaged at work. Workers enjoy applying new
skills and ideas to work. This leads to creativity because the new ideas
are applied in problem- solving and decision making.
However, if the working environment is not favourable to employees, the
employees do not enjoy work, and this leads to demotivation.
Demotivation does not encourage creative application of solutions to
challenge. If the social, working environment does is not friendly to
employees, they are usually demotivated, and this slows down creativity.
In some organizations, new ideas by employees are not considered in
decision making. This makes employees not to get well integrated into
the system, and this slows down creativity.
Domain-relevant skills, on the other hand, are the expertise that is
essential in order to apply meaningful changes in domains. The domain
relevant skills include technical knowledge, talent, knowledge and
intelligence. These skills are necessary in creativity because
creativity involves constant improvement of fundamental skills. This
improvement is achieved through the provision of necessary equipment and
enabling environment that continually challenges employees to apply
their skills continually to work.
If the working environment does not provide chances for employees to
exercise their knowledge and skills, their creativity is hampered. This
is because the employees then work under the guidance of the management.
Work becomes routine, and this also leads to boredom which demotivates
employees. This is unhealthy for the organization because there is no
room for application of new skills and changes in the market. This
causes the organization to lag behind in the market because of the
unresponsiveness to changes. Employees will also not be motivated to
implement changes because the top- down approach excludes employees from
the organization (Bundy 2002). Thus, for creativity to occur,
organizations are advised to give room and support for employees to
improve their skills. These skills are then applied in the organization
which improves its competitive advantage.
Additionally, organizations should match the skills, and competencies of
employees with the jobs allocated. This enables employees to apply their
skills relevantly to their jobs, and it encourages creativity. The
experience in applying relevant skills to solving problems enables
employees to sharpen their skills, which enable them to become creative
(Mumford 2012). Employees also learn new tricks of doing their work, and
this leads to creativity which can be applied to organizations to
improve outcomes and efficiency. However, some organizations do not
allocate jobs based on skills. This leads to misplacement of
professional qualifications, which hampers creativity. This is because
employees must learn new skills altogether. These skills may be out of
the employees’ areas of interest and talent, which leads to lack of
Talent is an important domain- relevant skill. This is because talent
leads to a natural drive for creativity and improves intrinsic
motivation. Talent also encourages creativity because the individual can
apply natural skills to the problem- solving. Talent is also valuable
because it requires little investment to improve and apply at work. If
organizations do not continually improve the talents of their employees,
there is little room for creativity. This is because it takes a lot of
effort to perform tasks that one is not talented in and can hamper
Creativity- relevant cognitive skills are those skills that are unique
to an individual in terms of decision- making, adaptation to innovation,
perception of work, divergent thinking, and individual skills in
problem- solving. These are related to a person’s personality and
inborn characteristics in most case (Lockwood & Walton 2007)s. However,
some skills can be learnt and applied efficiently. These skills are
important especially when it comes to problem solving and adaptation to
Adaptation to changes is an integral part of an organization. This is
because organizations are dynamic and keep changing in order to adapt to
changes in the market. Therefore, employees should be able to adapt to
these changes so that their skills can remain relevant to changes. This
also enables employees to work efficiently because they learn how to
change their skills and operations in terms of changing working
environments (Lockwood & Walton 2007). Thus, organizations should
recruit people who are adaptable to changes because these leads to
creativity in terms of coming up with ways of adapting to changes. This
can be done, through consultations and systematic changes to ensure that
employees come on board.
However, some organizations do not apply changes systematically. This
disorients employees as they seek, for ways to adapt to changes that
they are not well aware of in the first place. This hinders creativity
because the employees are not able to come up with ways of adapting to
changes. It also does not allow employees to have an input on the
changes in the organization which makes them feel alienated. This kind
of environment limits the creative abilities of employees which may to
the disadvantage of the organization because it is unable to utilise the
skills and competencies of employees. Employees are also in touch with
market needs and the lack of their involvement in changes blocks their
application of knowledge gained in implementing changes. Thus, an
organization becomes unable to adapt to changes efficiently.
Divergent thinking is also important in creativity. This is because it
involves bringing in of new ideas in solving problems. This eliminates
routine which may not be working to the favour of the organization. Foe
divergent thinking to be possible, managers should employ open
communication policies to facilitate the sharing of ideas between
employees and management (Hompson & Choi 2006). Employees should be
encouraged to think outside the box and bring in fresh ideas, which are
then evaluated against the needs of the organization. This leads to
better approaches in solving problems which leads to creativity.
However, this may not be possible in some organizations especially those
that do not encourage constant sharing of ideas. Additionally, some
organizations do not analyse and implement a staff idea which
discourages staff members from sharing ideas. Some managers also lack
good working relationships with their employees. This creates a barrier
in communication of ideas. This breakdown in communication is not good
for organizations because the ideas brought forward by management may
not always be suitable to changing market trends. Such organizations
also have low staff morale because staff members feel like their input
to work is not valued.
Perception to work is also an important cognitive process. Perception is
the way workers view their working environments and their work in
general. Good perception of work encourages creativity and innovation
because it leads to a positive attitude towards work and the working
environment. A positive attitude leads to a natural drive to work which
in turn encourages creativity and innovation. This is usually harnessed
through a favourable working environment and proper matching of skills
and talents to the job allocated to workers. A positive attitude comes
from the feeling that individual efforts play a big role in the
A negative attitude, however, hinders creativity and innovation because
the worker does not feel like he, or she is part of the organization.
Work becomes routine, and people work just so that they can fulfil their
obligations in the organization. Some organizations, however, encourage
negative perception of work due to a mismatch of skill and talents with
the work allocated (Mumford 2012). Some managers are also overbearing,
and this creates undue pressure on employees which discourages
creativity. Workers in such organizations perform their duties based on
routine procedures for the sake of satisfying their managers. This leads
to lack of creativity in performing duties and solving problems.
In conclusion, creativity and innovation are closely interlinked.
Creativity is what leads to innovation and, therefore, a proper
environment should be established to encourage creativity. The
componential theory of creativity best explains how internal and
external factors of an organization can be applied in encouraging
creativity. The componential theory is comprised of intrinsic
motivation, cognitive skills, and domain- relevant skills which all
explain how external and internal factors influence creativity and
innovation as discussed. Managers are encouraged to create favourable
environments that encourage creativity in problem solving because this
leads to efficiency and positive outcomes. Organizations that discourage
creativity and innovation have under motivated employees, and this
hinders the organizations from competing effectively in dynamic
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Practice for Entrepreneurs”, Technology Innovation Management review,
Talent First Network, New York, 1-5.
Amabile, TM, 22 May, 2012, “Componential Theory of Creativity”
Harvard Business School, California, Harvard Business School, 1-5
Lockwood, T & Walton, T, 2007, Corporate Creativity: Developing an
Innovative organization, Allorth Press, New York, 183-194
Mumford, MD, 2012, Handbook of Organizational Creativity. Academic
Press, New York, 522-561
Bundy, WM, 2002, Innovation, Creativity, and Discovery in Modern
Organizations, Greenwood Publishing Group, New York, 58-86.
Thompson, LL & Choi, HS,2006, Creativity and Innovation in
Organizational Teams, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, New York, 123-149.
Innovation and Creativity in Organizations PAGE * MERGEFORMAT 4

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