Discussion Questions Psychotherapy

Jungian therapy
Jungian therapy refers to a psychotherapeutic approach that was founded
by Carl Jung and advanced by other psychologists who believed in
Jung’s perception. The primary objective of Jungian therapy is to
foster growth, healing, and initiates a higher level of synthesis of the
patient’s personality (Kerrisk, 2011). In addition, the Jungian
therapy creates a map of the human psyche, which is described by
unconscious and conscious elements. Psychologists have been using the
basic principles of this approach (especially the face-to-face
interaction with client) to develop creative techniques that are
effectively utilized in the process of integrating other techniques such
as visualization and mindfulness.
Jungian therapy is based on the concepts of self and individuation,
which holds that the self is composed of the conscious and unconscious
processes that energize an individual’s personality (Kerrisk, 2011).
Individuation, on the other hand, acts as the inherent drive towards
synthesis and wholeness. This means that an effective psychotherapy
should reconcile the conflicting elements of the self in order to ensure
the balance of an integrated balance of the whole that is conscious and
unconscious elements of a human being.
The archetype of the Jungian therapy is composed of events, motifs, and
figures where archetypal images that represent human experiences are
termed as either animus (woman’s soul image) or anima man’s image of
feminine) (Kerrisk, 2011). The persona archetype is the image with which
a person presents himself to the society. The archetypal events
considered in the Jungian therapy include birth, initiation, marriage,
and death. These archetypes have positive and negative side, which
resulted in the development of the concept of the union of opposites
that holds that one becomes enlightened by making the darkness conscious
and not imaging figures of light.
Jungian therapy is a long process that may take years since it involves
four phases. First, confession phase involves sharing the patient’s
story and experience with a therapist. The second phase is elucidation,
which involves working the transference that requires interpretation.
Third, therapists extend insights into behavioral, social, and
archetypal elements in the process referred to as education. The fourth
phase involves transformation, which allows the therapist to guide the
patient in the process of individuation (Kerrisk, 2011).
Use of behaviorism to explain criminal behavior
Behaviorism is a psychological perspective that seeks to focus on the
identification of observable and measurable laws that are useful in
explaining human behavior. In addition, behaviorism holds that changes
in human behavior can be studied by identifying and measuring the impact
of environmental stimuli on a given organism (McLeod, 2007). This
implies that all forms of human behavior (including problem solving,
experience of emotions, and accomplishment of physical tasks) occur as a
result of response to a given stimulus that is provided by the
Criminal behavior can be studied by investigating the individuals’
lives with an objective of identifying the underlying cause of behavior
modification. This is accomplished by identifying environmental
conditions that reinforced an individual to learn embrace criminal
behavior. This can be further explained using the basic elements of
operant conditioning, which include neutral operants, reinforce, and
punishers (McLeod, 2007). Reinforcers are environmental responses that
increase the probability of an individual to repeat a given behavior.
Punishers are environmental elements that reduce the probability of
repeating a behavior while neutral operants are environmental responses
that has no effect on the probability of repeating a given behavior.
Based on the three types of environmental responses, people are likely
to adopt a criminal behavior if they are brought up in an environment
without a punisher or it contains reinforcers of criminal behavior. For
example, a neighborhood with high level of crime or gang activities may
reinforce criminal behavior in someone brought up in that area. In
addition, lack of legal actions against the gangs (punisher) may result
in the development of a perception that crime is acceptable and worth to
practice. This implies that analyzing people’s s environment is the
starting point towards understanding of their criminal behavior.
Use of psychodynamic therapy for substance abuse disorders
Psychodynamic is a therapeutic approach that addresses unconscious
processes that manifest in the present behavior of a person. The main
objective of using this approach is to enhance client’s self awareness
by analyzing the impact of the past on present behavior. The capacity of
this approach to increase the awareness of client’s vulnerable
feelings that have already been pushed away from conscious awareness has
increased its use in therapeutic procedure for substance abuse Haggerty,
J. (2013). A therapist using this approach intervenes to uncover
internal conflicts that result in symptoms of maladaptive behavior.
Psychodynamic approach help addiction therapists in analyzing the past
events of the client, thought, as well as circumstances that shape
client’s behavior at the time of intervention. This approach is based
on an assumption that the past events produce unconscious processes that
influence an individual to act in a given way. Dysfunctional
relationships and unresolved conflicts are the major past events that
are addressed during psychodynamic therapy because they can induce
substance abuse without the realization of the client that they have a
connection with substance abuse. Although psychodynamic is a lengthy
process, it is highly interactive between the client and the therapist,
which increase its effectiveness in treating substance addiction.
Psychodynamic therapy has also gained popularity in the treatment of
substance abuse because it is more effective than other traditional
approaches (including symptom focused treatment) in enhancing the growth
and improvement as the years go. In addition, psychodynamic therapy not
only reduces further substance abuse, but also results in a happier life
(Dara Thailand Drug & Alcohol Rehab Asia, 2013). This is because the
therapist is able to establish a strong relationship with a client,
which helps the client reach a situation of comfort and relaxation. This
helps the client to remove their deepest and hidden memories and
feelings compared to other therapeutic options.
Dara Thailand Drug & Alcohol Rehab Asia (2013). Psychodynamic therapy.
Dara Thailand Drug & Alcohol Rehab Asia. Retrieved October 23, 2013,
Haggerty, J. (2013). Psychodynamic therapy. Newburyport: Psychology
Central. Retrieved October 23, 2013, from HYPERLINK
Kerrisk, C. (2011). Synthesis therapy & counseling services. Auckland:
Three Lamps Counseling & Psychotherapy Centre.
McLeod, S. (2007). Skinner-operant conditioning. Simply Psychology.
Retrieved October 23, 2013, from HYPERLINK

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