Coursework Coursework

Kidneys and endocrine system enhance the maintenance of the body fluids
in intracellular and extracellular compartments. This depends on the
osmotic pressure, hydrostatic pressure due to the presence of fluids,
and osmotic pressure. Hydrostatic pressure results from the action of
lymphatic and cardiovascular systems. The forces involved in
cardiovascular contractions leads to hydrostatic pressure of the
capillaries. Cardiovascular osmotic pressure results from concentration
of plasma proteins such as fibrinogen and globulins. The proteins allow
the fluid to return to vascular compartment. Fall of concentration of
the plasma proteins makes the fluid leave through the vascular space
(Adler, 2006).
This can take place through various kinds of homeostasis such as
diffusion, osmosis, active transport and filtration.
Osmosis refers to movement of water across the semipermeable membrane
from low solute content to high solute activity. The process occurs when
permeability of the membrane to water is higher than that of solutes.
Hypertonic solutions result in shrinking of the cells while hypotonic
solutions make the cells enlarge.
Diffusion involves movement of substances from high to low concentration
areas, and ceases after equilibrium are reached. The differences in
electrical potential and pressure across the semi permeable membrane
determine the diffusion rate.
Filtration refers to transfer of dissolved substances and water across
the semipermeable membrane from high to low pressures. Hydrostatic
pressure causes filtration.
Active transport refers to movement against electrochemical or
concentration gradient, and Adenosine triphosphate.
Maintaining fluid balance in older people requires a higher water intake
than in a normal, healthy adult under age 40
The ageing process affects the structural changes in renal,
integumentary, gastrointestinal and pulmonary systems. Such changes
reduce the ability of the systems involved compensating for the
electrolyte and fluid imbalances. Most old adults experience high
dehydration levels due to electrolyte and fluid imbalances, hence the
need for higher intake of water.
Rise of potassium concentration rise patients with acidosis
Acidosis refers to the disorder that affects the potassium in the blood
serum of a patient. This occurs as a result of the net movement of
potassium to the blood stream from the cells in order to stabilize the
pH. This may also result due to kidney diseases or any condition that
results in massive destruction of the tissues. This leads to increased
potassium levels in the blood due to release of potassium by the damaged
tissues. The increase in potassium concentration is referred as
hyperkalemia. Potassium necessitates the normal body functions such as
muscular control and normal transmission of the electrical signals in
the body. Normal potassium levels maintain the normal electrical rhythm
of the heart. High potassium levels lead to abnormal heart rhythms and
severe levels may suppress the electrical activity of the heart making
the heart stop beating (Adler, 2006).
Use of saline conditions in reversing the hypotonic hydration
Hypotonic hydration results to decreased levels of sodium ions
inhibiting the release of ADH leading to re-absorption of less water
while excess water is flushed from the body in the form of urine. Any
abrupt drinking of water results to over hydration hypotonic hydration.
This diluted ECF and results in low sodium ions causing the cells to
swell. This can be corrected using a saline solution to supply the
sodium ions. The cell membrane is permeable to saline solutions
especially those containing potassium and sodium ions. This results due
to positively charged membrane pores or prosthetic groups. As the cell
membrane increase in size, they become less permeable. The cell wall
contains phospholipids that create pressure difference and this allows
the potassium and sodium ions move selectively in and out of the cell
(Landsman & Krauthgamer, 2009).
Renin-angiotensin mechanism
This refers to a hormone based mechanism that regulates the fluid
pressure in the human body. Low blood volume in kidneys secretes renin
into circulation. The plasma rennin carries out conversion of the
angiotensinogen released from the liver to angiotensin I, which is later
converted to angiotensin II. This is vaso-active peptide that results in
constriction of the blood vessels resulting in high blood pressure.
Also, angiotensin II stimulates secretion of aldosterone hormone that
results in increased size of kidney tubules. This enhances the
re-absorption of water and sodium into the blood increasing the fluids
in the blood and consequent rise in blood pressure.
Anti-Diuretic Hormone (ADH)
ADH compensates for the blood that contains many solutes. When the blood
contains many solutes, the hypothalamus part of the brain sends the
message to pituitary glands that release ADH. The secreted ADH travels
through the blood to the kidneys and triggers the tubules to produce
more water. The water goes directly into the bloodstream until the
solute level goes back to normal (Landsman & Krauthgamer, 2009).
References
Adler, A. S. (2006). Renoprotective Effects of Renin-angiotensin-system
Inhibitors. The Lancet 367(9514), 897-98.
Landsman, L., & Krauthgamer, C. (2009). CX3CR1 Is Required for Monocyte
Homeostasis and Atherogenesis by Promoting Cell Survival. Blood 113(4),
963-72.
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