Climate Change

Hurricanes, typhoons and Tropical cyclones are collective terms used to
describe the same natural phenomenon which is one of the most fatal,
costly, and frightening weather systems on Earth. These minor and strong
tropical weather systems have destroyed more people than any other
natural disaster (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). During the
20th century in the United States, tropical cyclones caused ten times as
many deaths and damage as compared to earthquakes (DeMaria & Kaplan,
280). The constant rapid increase in coastal populations along the
hurricane- susceptible to coast of the southeast United States as from
1950s has increased the citizens at risk to coastal and inland flooding.
Despite the adverse effects, advances in technology, communication, and
forecasting have reduced the vulnerability of health risks among the
public. From 1995, there has been an increase in Atlantic hurricane
activity compared with the 1970s and 1980s (Emanuel, 686) The toughest
hurricanes, categories 4 and 5 on the Saffir- Simpson Scale rose by 25
percent in the North Atlantic during 1990–2004 compared with
1975–1989. Therefore, this help display a correlation between rising
water temperatures in the tropical Atlantic and hurricane energy.
However, this relationship does not hold for other oceans (DeMaria &
Kaplan, 280).
In 2005, Category 5 hurricanes deepened in the western Atlantic Ocean
basin within a period of two-months hence breaking the previous records.
This increasing adverse effects exhibited by hurricanes have led to
concern, in terms of people’s health, safety. This is because
,hurricanes, possess a great challenge to the Hurricane intensity
trackers, Modelers, Traffic engineers, Emergency departments, insurance
and the government budgets (Analytics. 5).
Conventional Methods
Before the 20th century, Hurricane forecasting was done using Land-based
Weather stations which included radio communications with ocean moving
vessels. This method could not provide the required hurricane
information on time and hence some hurricanes could occur even before
the warning signals reach the stations. Another Method used is the
prediction of hurricane paths based on the observations of previous
tracks and the experience by the Cuban meteorologists. This method was
limited in that it depended on previous experience and predictions
which could provide inaccurate information about the hurricane detection
(DeMaria & Kaplan, 280).
Advanced Technological Methods
On-going sea vessels were manufactured with radio communications that
amplified the hurricane reports from telegraph based land stations. This
advancement was important since formation and intensification of
hurricanes would be observed.. The development of weather radio
detection and aircraft survey in Great Britain after First World War in
1944, led to improved prediction of the Hurricane mooring locations and
understanding the navigating currents that were thought to regulate the
hurricane motion (DeMaria & Kaplan, 280). The discovery of weather
satellites around 1960 promptly aided in solving the adversities of
hurricanes. This method facilitated fast detection and hurricane
tracking, the initial satellite sensors revolved the poles hence seizing
data in the evident and infrared wavelengths after every six hours. This
collected data evidently revealed the developing storms organizations in
remote ocean areas, makeshift motion over time, and cloud maximum-
temperatures which could be related to the hurricane strengths (DeMaria
& Kaplan, 280).
An improved weather satellite technology was developed by
Vernersuomi’s, a famous known spin-scan cloud imager. This method
positioned the satellites over the equator where they imaged the
equivalent area of the area for every 20 minutes. This provided a
greater repeat analysis which became essential for hurricane emergence
and the response networks. Advancement in satellite meteorology was
designed for cloud recognition which estimated the intensity of
hurricanes from the satellite images (Dvorak, 1975, pp 420-430). This
method has been automated recently for processing images and visualizing
the proliferated systems which the hurricane analysts and forecasters
use. The National hurricane center (NHC) director later developed a
color improved dynamic movie circles of hurricane motion on television
inform and help warn the public about oncoming storms. These advanced
methods have become an essential tool on television weather broadcasts
and on the World Wide Web (DeMaria & Kaplan, 280).
Over the past centuries there has been an alarming rate of climate
change due to manmade and natural activities. Such human activities that
have led to increased water levels include emission of greenhouse gases
from burning of fossil fuels for use in transport sectors, agriculture
sector and industrial sector. Natural activities such as volcanic
eruption atmospheric pressure, physical forces and ocean current
variation all lead to global warming, which is attributed to rise in
ocean level. Other factors are thermal expansion, melting of polar ice
caps and glaciers and loss of ice from Greenland and west Antarctica
(Guzman, 78).
Tropical Cyclones
Observable data recorded evidence shows the various biological impacts
of cyclones. In 1995, a cyclone compromised the respiratory systems of
five killer whales, making them stranded in the hurricane (Dvorak, 1975,
420-430). Recorded data concerning the Asian Tsunami of the 2004, shows
that the hurricane lead to death of over a hundred and fifty thousand
people as well as causing massive environmental obliteration. In
addition, the hurricane led to the long term problem of increased
wastes, such as metal objects, in the ocean as well as along the coast
line. This promoted growth of algae blooms, which do well in presence of
iron. In Sri Lanka, the hurricane led to loss of over two hundred sea
turtles belonging to a research firm, when waves from the hurricane
destroyed tanks used as the turtles’ shelters. The hurricane further
destroyed the coastal beaches, making it impossible for turtles to nest
and hatch on the coast line (DeMaria & Kaplan, 280).
Biological Impacts
Cyclones and hurricanes have wind burst with speed ranging from a speed
of ninety kilometers per hour to two hundred and eighty kilometers per
hour. With this speed, the cyclones are very causes widespread
destruction to aquatic and terrestrial animals, aquatic biological
structures such as corals as well as manmade structures along the coast,
and in its extremes on structures erected on the mainland. This wave of
destruction by cyclones continues to persist, though recent
technological developments have aided in accurate forecasting of
occurrence of cyclones, leading to subsequent evacuations. This has
assisted in reducing the adversities of cyclones and hurricanes (Robert
Mendelsohn, 17).
The strength of the cyclone is located at its centre, referred to as the
eye of the cyclone. This is the most destructive part of the cyclone,
but is neutralized or displaced by destructive wind blowing in the
opposite direction (Analytics. 5).Cyclones attract heavy rainfalls which
lead to excessive flooding in oceans. This cyclone rains may carry on as
the cyclone moves towards the dry land – a process referred to as
decaying of the cyclone. This persisting rain, may lead to floods on the
mainland, which leads to loss of lives and destruction of property.
Similar to loss of lives and destruction of property on the mainland due
to terrestrial flooding, oceanic flooding leads loss of aquatic lives
through drowning as well as destruction of biological structures found
on oceanic floors such as the coral reefs (Robert Mendelsohn 17).
Cyclones have been identified as the causatives of more than forty
percent of vessels accidents in oceans (Dvorak, 420-430). The huge wind
speed generated by the cyclones leave a wave of destruction on land and
on the oceans. The strong winds destroys vessels which are out in the
oceans as well as those anchored in harbor, leading to death of persons
in these vessels. In addition to causing vessels accidents in the oceans
and those anchored in harbors, strong wind generated by cyclones, lead
to massive erosion of foreshores. The massive sand from the shores is
deposited at the oceanic floor, thereby destroying the natural habitats
of aquatic lives living on ocean floors (Timothy W. kana 12). In
addition, cyclones have a direct impact on aquatic lives.
However, most of the aquatic lives such as fishes and dolphins are
minimally affected by the cyclones since they are naturally adopted to
perceive changes in water pressures of mechanical disturbances in their
habitats, through their lateral lines. This helps them to migrate to
other areas, since they possess great flight methods, thereby avoiding
the adverse impacts of cyclones. Aquatic lives such as black tiff reef
sharks have been found to automatically respond to barometric pressure
changes and free to deeper waters, during the onset of cyclones, as a
counter measure against changes in water pressures. Nonetheless,
cyclones affect other aquatic lives such as aquatic birds and other
aquatic lives, which have no developed strategies to forecast, and free
from cyclones before they occur (Timothy W. kana 12).
Hurricanes affect birds which are not adapted to withstand strong winds
such as waterfowl. This is because some of these birds have weak
features which make it difficult to hold themselves in place. Sea birds,
waterfowls, Songbirds and smaller woodland birds are most susceptible
to adversities of hurricanes, due to their inability to withstand strong
winds. In addition, strong hurricanes sweep aquatic mammals off the
shore, making them stranded-especially those that only breathe under
water. This affects their respiratory systems leading to their death
(Analytics. 5). Hurricanes cause strong wave action which lead to
destruction of aquatic lives such as sea fans, sea whips, sponges and
coral sponges. Ingestion of blockage of digestion system due to
ingestion of wastes by sea turtles will lead to their death.
Additionally, debris such as fishing gear can entangle sea turtles and
manatees. Debris can be accidentally ingested, including balloons, when
sea turtles mistake them for food. Suffocation of sea animals due to
algae bloom caused by bringing up into the surface cool deeper water as
a result of ocean mixing due to hurricanes which is rich in nutrients,
Bad odor from decomposing algae causes stress to the aquatic mammals.
Slight impacts caused by the hurricanes destroy the delicate coral reefs
and cause death on them due to their delicate nature (Emanuel, 686).
Sea level rise will hinder successful migration of organisms due to
flooding in coastal regions. The structure, capacity and inland
ecosystems will be influenced by high oceanic level thus hindering their
capacity to perfume ecosystem services such as air purification, water
purification and recharge of water aquifers. Water quality will be
compromised by pollutants from flood water contaminated by municipal
waste and agricultural waste from agricultural field. Contaminated water
will worsen access to the scarce fresh water availability in the world.
Emergence of waterborne diseases due to contaminated water and increased
breeding ground for vectors such as mosquitoes (Emanuel, 686).
Predictions for Future
Due to the active season of 2005 hurricane occurrence, this has
motivated developments of further hurricane forecasts narrowing to the
predictions of hurricane intensity. This prediction is essential on
extreme flood along the coast which will bring understanding and
anticipating on the progress of tough hurricanes (DeMaria & Gross,
280-287). This progressive prediction will help in public health and
safety since the strongest hurricanes that produce adverse damages will
be accounted for. This will help address the immediate, short-term and
long term public health impacts of the upcoming large hurricanes
facilitated in improvement in infrastructure, pollutant inventories,
emigration planning, and GIS data bases where information will be easily
accessed. It will also provide best model for forecasting hurricane
intensity thus givingaccurate hurricane track information on controlled
factors such as the storm’s first intensity, the atmospheric
conditions alongside its route, and heat exchange with the upper limit
layer on the ocean( DeMaria & Gross, 280-287).
The satellite observation advances of the upper ocean will provide the
first dimensions which are essential in the development of better models
in the intensity of hurricane predictions. Technological advances in
conjunction with ocean-atmosphere models in progress accompanied with
the effective usage of satellite and stationed measurements will lead to
substantial improvements in the forecasting of the intensity of the
hurricanes in the near future. The already in operations advance
technology for weather and sea-observing satellites to be propelled in
2010 will progress the availability and precision of atmospheric and sea
data which will be used as an ideal contribution ( DeMaria & Gross,
The persistence in use of satellite data by scientists to accurately
measure ocean surface temperatures which allows location of loop
currents from the data, it becomes impossible sometimes during hurricane
season since the neighboring surface waters may be equally warm. This is
because scientists rely on satellites which measure ocean surface
altitude to locate the top-heat content during summer in areas where
hurricanes are probably to intensify. This therefore means that, fairly
small variations in satellite will be measured and this leads to
creation of large differences in the potential heat which can accelerate
the developing hurricanes.
Factors such as upper-level winds and cold water upsurge besides the
hurricane pathways impacts on the intensity of hurricane changes and
even sometimes stabilize the potential effect of the sea content
(Emanuel, 665-669). This is because the hurricane winds facilitates the
mixing of cooler waters from below the surface leading to cooling
effects to which this cooling effects is the immediate impact on the
intensity of the hurricane. The information which is available from the
satellites for the thermal systems of the top sea has not recently been
used in operations of forecasting the intensity of the hurricane.
The satellite sensors have been limited in use since they fail to
provide the required information about the vertical arrangement of the
sea or the atmosphere. This therefore requires a broad data gathering
program to supplement the understanding on the changes in the intensity
withinthe hurricanes. Sea level increase is a reality and the impacts
will be more profound than anticipated if nothing is done. Nonetheless,
the rate of sea level can be slowed down people should adopt a
lifestyle that gives out low carbon at individual level to reduce the
intense warming of our planet.   Adoption to sustainable development
is the solution to avoid disastrous effects of sea level rise and
governments should invest on new cleaner technologies such as use of
renewable energy sources at the expense of fossil fuel as source of
Works Cited
Emanuel, K.A. Increasing Destructiveness of Tropical Cyclones Over the
Past 30 years. Nature. 2005.436:686-688.
DeMaria, M., and J. Kaplan. An Operational Evaluation of a Statistical
Hurricane Intensity Prediction Scheme.Reprints of the 22nd Conference on
Hurriocanes and Tropical Meteorology. American Meteorological Society,
Boston, 1997. 280-281.
Dvorak,V.Tropical Cyclone Intensity Analysis and Forecasting from
Satellite Imagery. Monthly Weather Review. 1975 103:420-430.
DeMaria,M., and J. M. Gross. Evolution of Prediction
Models:Hurricanes’s Coping with Disaster, R.Simpson,ed. American
Geophysical Union, Washington,D.C. 2003.10.1029/0555
Emanuel, K.A. Thermoregulation Control of Hurricane Intensity. Nature.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. “Human Influence on Climate.”
Human Influence on Climate System (2013): 1-2.
john A.Church, Philip L. Woodworth,Thorkild Aarup,Wstanley Wilson.
Understanding Sea-level Rise and Variability. Newyork: John Wiley &
Sons, 2010.
Robert Mendelsohn, James E. Neumann. The Impact of Climate Change on the
United States Economy. London: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
T.Guzman, Andrew. Overheated: The Human Cost of Climate Change. London:
Oxford University Press, 2013.
Timothy, Kana and James G. Titus. Greenhouse Effect, Sea Level Rise, and
Coastal Wetlands. London: BiblioBazaar, 2011.

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