Date of Submission
This is a submission of knowledge in decisions to be made by a
prescribing foster practitioner in a particular medical case. The case
study will include discussions upon which treatment and education
strategies will be based. Practice procedures will be noted from the
literature as verification for the treatment and education strategy.
Findings Assessment Data
Medical practitioners have the option of choosing from a profuse range
of antihypertensive medication, including modules that combine use of
two or more drugs. The new antihypertensive drugs posses’ different
chemical structures from the older drugs, but they produce significantly
matching effects in the body. Physicians can modify treatment to suit an
individual patient, be able of producing few side effects and hopefully
guard against complications such as heart attack of failures.
Patients with a history of COPD are more likely to have respiratory
infections like colds, pneumonia and flu. Respiratory infections cause
damage to lung tissue. Other problems may include high blood pressure in
the arteries, which is pulmonary hypertension, Heart complications such
as the risk of heart attacks, and development of depression as a result
of difficulty in breathing. Lung cancer is also a complication for
smokers with chronic bronchitis
In adding up to behavior change, medication is also necessary to help
control hypertension. There are several medications, referred to as
anti-hypertensive’s, which can be used to treat and manage blood
The goal of treatment for this patient is always to reduce the blood
pressure, considering this case is a complicated one, since the patient
has other existing diseases such as chest pains and coughs in addition
to their blood pressure condition.
Diuretics also called water pills are the cheapest class of drugs used
for medical treatment of hypertension. They assist the kidneys in
elimination of water and sodium from the body. The process lowers blood
volume, so the heart pumps less blood with each beat, this resulting to
low blood pressure. The normal course of treatment is to commence with
one drug and a second if the blood pressure does not fall down usually
to levels less than 140/90 mm Hg. Supplementary drugs may be used if the
patient’s blood pressure fails to drop to acceptable levels,
nonetheless lifestyle change is a crucial component for treatment.
An alternative choice is using the Angiostensin II antagonist receptor
or ACE inhibitor with calcium channel blocker for patients with evidence
of heart failures.
The rationale behind combining antihypertensive drugs is in relation to
the concept that lowering blood pressure may be enhanced when two drug
modules are co-administered, for example the case of angiotensim
conversion enzyme ACE inhibitor and angiotensin II receptor antagonist
administered as single modules.
There are numerous trials explaining the power of drug therapy. These
trails use different modules of drugs including diuretics, angiotensin
receptor blockers and alpha blockers, in the therapy initial stages, it
must be however noted that patients require three or four drugs in order
to achieve the specific levels of blood pressure control.
The MICRO HOPE study demonstrates the efficiency of ACE inhibitors in
retarding the progression and development of diabetic nephropathy. This
is so since ACE inhibitors posses positive effects on cardiovascular
results, mediated by other mechanisms excluding reduction of blood
pressure, and this may be a similar behavior to other drug modules.
Diuretics may cause lightheadedness and dizziness during the first days
of consumption as the body tries to adjust. Loss of appetite, blurred
vision, itching, headache and stomach upsets may also occur during body
adjustment to medication. The medicine is not recommended to be used
alongside: dofetilide, lithium,oral drugs used for diabetes, digoxin or
aspirin. If a patient uses cholestyramine, the diuretic should be taken
an hour before to avoid the decrease in bloodstream absorption.
Inform your physician about your medical history, particularly about
liver problems, gout, any allergies or urinary problems. Diuretics may
raise sensitivity to sunlight, hence shun prolonged sunlight exposure.
The medication can only be used during pregnancy if needed only, but
this is after a discussion with the physician about the benefits and
risks, since diuretics appear in breast milk.
In instances of suspected overdose, the patient should quickly contact
the nearest poison control center immediately. Symptoms of overdose vary
from nausea, slow or shallow breathing, unconsciousness, confusion,
dizziness, drowsiness, seizures or fainting.
There are epidemiological connections between diabetes and hypertension.
Medical trials demonstrate the efficiency of drug therapy in dipping the
results and in setting an insistent blood pressure to the acceptable
level of 131/80 mmHg. It is evident that patients will require more
drugs to attain the recommended target, with a treatment that does not
generate troublesome side effects and is of realistic cost to the
Newman, M. F., Fleisher, L. A., & Fink, M. P. (2007). Perioperative
medicine: Managing for outcomes. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Saunders.
Moser, M. (2008). Clinical Management of Hypertension. Caddo, OK:
Biersack, H. J., & Freeman, L. M. (2007). Clinical nuclear medicine.
Barnes, P. J. (2009). Asthma and COPD: Basic mechanisms and clinical
management. Amsterdam: Academic.
Murray, J. (2000). Manual of dysphagia assessment in adults: […]. San
Diego, Calif.] [u.a.: Singular Publ. Group.
PATIENT MEDICATION CASE STUDY PAGE * MERGEFORMAT 6
PATIENT MEDICATION CASE STUDY 1
Date of Submission