Bozarth, J. D. (2002). Nondirectivity in the person-centered approach Critique of Kahn`s critique. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 42(2), 78-83. doi; 10.1177/0022167802422007

The paper is a critique to Kahn`s critique of an earlier paper done by Bozarth. The paper presents a healthy argument on what RCCT should entail and should not entail. Bozarth makes three major arguments. One is that Kahn ignored CCT`s foundational belief that fosters self-determination and authority. By therapists providing clients with personal interpretations will interfere with their right to self -determination. Second is that Kahn also ignored the condition of congruence meaning the therapist constantly reflects back the client`s feelings in order to correct his “fallibility.” This demonstrates that CCT is in fact a two person psychology rather than one person-centered with the client being the sole focus, which Kahn stated otherwise. Third is that nondirectivity is possible if the therapist adheres to the core conditions of CCT, as it destroys the basis for the slight direction of the client (Bozarth, 2002).
The article is very useful for the study. It provides relevant arguments that face practitioners and scholars on what really constitutes CTT and the common misunderstandings between being purely client-centered and showing empathic understanding and responding. The article is reliable as it is relevant to the current study, covers important topics and the author is qualified and experienced scholar and practitioner in the field. The author takes a subjective stance in arguing for his case. He believes that he has a better understanding of RCCT than Kahn who is also an accomplished expert in RCCT. He thus achieves his goal in showing the shortfalls of Kahn`s criticism of his works although he does not cite specific examples in his field of work showing how his understanding and application of RCCT differs with that of Kahn.
This is by far the most interesting and helpful read of all the sources. It presents livid arguments succinctly, easy to understand and uses simple language. It shapes the research argument in that it captures possible pitfalls in application of CCT. The sense that RCCT appear trickier to apply in real life than earlier anticipated. The fact that there is no clear differentiation between empathic understanding and being directive through expert responses points to major potential pitfalls and point of argument among scholars in use of RCCT. The current research will focus more on proper application of the approach to suit the original purpose and accommodate advances on the theory. The resource will point to potential areas of confusion in applying the theory.
Brodley, B. (1997). The nondirective attitude in client-centered therapy. The Person-Centred Journal, 4(1) 118-30.
The article covers a key issue in RCCT, nondirective attitude. This entails being empathic, accepting, congruent with client`s feelings and most importantly empowering clients by not directing them in any way and facilitating them to change behavior by accepting every aspect of the client they will change their behavior. Such an attitude is engraved in John Stuart Mills` views that individuals should be allowed the freedom to pursue things for their own good so long as their efforts do not affect others negatively. This stance has three major behavioral implications. Therapists must by nature of nurture be non-paternalistic, non-authoritarian and resist any cultural climate that promotes authoritarian tendencies. Therefore, the therapist will not want to direct the client in any way. This has several behavioral implications for the therapist. One is that the therapist empathically follows the client in order to understand the client and demonstrate his/her complete acceptance of them which expresses a nondirective attitude. The second one is that therapists must respond to client`s questions and requests. The responses should not be limited to empathic responses but should be authentic and non-directive. The therapist views the client`s ability to ask questions and requests as a basic right in the therapeutic alliance. The third implication is that being non-directive should not be used to disempower or control clients but should be used to provide directivity in client`s discovering their inner abilities to change behavior. In summary, therapists must train and evaluate themselves in applying this non-directive attitude approach in a subjective manner.
The article is very informative and game-changing. It offers a fresh approach in client-centered therapy where the role of a therapist`s attitude is elevated and its impact on the outcomes of therapy well assessed. In reference to other sources, it takes a different approach as it has given more weight to theory going as far as defining terms. The information provided is reliable as it is well researched as indicated by the numerous sources cited.
Although the author uses support from other sources to put across his point and show his objectivity, the article is subjective. He does not acknowledge alternative views to non-directive attitude in client centered therapy or the complications or challenges that may arise out of it. In the current study, the article is very important as it addresses a key component of client-centered therapy in non-directive attitude.
Brodley, B. T. (1996). Empathic understanding and feelings in client-centered therapy. The Person-Centered Journal, 3(1), 22-30. Retrieved from
The article discusses one of the key pillars of RCCT which is empathic understanding. Empathic understanding focuses on the client`s feelings and personal meaning. The therapist uses reflective listening in order to verify his accuracy and understanding of the client`s feelings. Therapist`s ability to be empathic leads the client to become more self-reflective. However, empathic understanding does not necessarily involve use of the word `feel` in a therapist`s response. The article notes that the use of the terms empathy and `feelings` in Rogers works goes deeper than the contemporary meaning. In practice, Rogers conceived `feelings` as clients` experience that cannot be expressed. The article thus expounds on Rogers conception of `empathic feelings` as presented in some of his empirical interviews with clients by analyzing the interviews with clients and how clients, through their words, qualified the therapist as being empathic and in congruent with their feelings. This practical application is compared to what Roger writes in his works on empathy and feelings.
This article is very important to the current study in various ways. Most importantly, it extensively discusses one of the areas of contention between two scholars, Kahn and Bozarth as presented in Bozarth (2002). This is empathic interpretation and nondirectiveness. Bozarth believes that Kahn confuses the attitude of being nondirective with the act of “empathic responding” and thus seeks to explain the two in this article. The information presented in the paper is reliable for academic and practical work. The author has used a wide range of resources to put across his point which is to show that the cornerstone in applying RCCT is being able to empathically understand a client and generate the right feelings that will result in positive change.
The resource specially addresses two of the main pillars of RCCT which make is mildly important to the study because these pillars are also addressed in depth by several of Rogers works. Nonetheless, he makes use of simpler language which is easier to understand and thus important in developing a simple and clear argument.
Kahn, E. (1999). A critique of nondirectivity in the person-centered approach. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 39(4), 94-110.doi: 10.1177/0022167899394006
The paper is a response to three critiques of his work in which the author was labeled an `eclectic` and one who is not client-centered by Merry and Brodley (2002), Bozarth (2002) and Sommerbeck (2002). The article covers the three main critiques. The first, it is impossible for a therapist o be nondirective because of therapist`s own biases. Second, RCCT is a “one person psychology” it solely focuses on the client. Lastly, fallible directivity is more useful than RCCT because the therapist recognizes that his understanding can be wrong at times. Kahn says that therapists can engage in tentative, fallible interpretation and not be paternalistic. As human beings, he acknowledge therapists can have biases. The article also seeks to proof the flexibility intended by the RCCT by indicating that it is sometimes important and possible to interpret a client`s feelings without being directive or having an agenda for the client something also practiced by Rogers himself. The article thus covers interpretation, flexibility, non-directivity, and directivity to drive its point home. In summary, the article is an argument in support of the flexibility of RCCT to suit prevailing conditions within a given client-therapist relationship.
The article is very helpful for my research as it addresses some of the possible pitfalls for any therapist intending to use RCCT. The article captures in part between the difference sin belief between Bozarth and Kahn in which one accuses the other of misunderstanding RCCT. These areas are empathic understanding, responsiveness and nondirectiveness. The author believes that it is almost impossible for any rational therapist to not put in advice to a client for the client`s benefits as he goes ahead to show that even Rogers himself did it.
This is one of the major resources in this research. It provides key arguments on what constitute positive responsiveness and empathic understanding and what is considered directing clients. Together with Bozarth (2002), the article will shape the arguments in terms explaining the misunderstandings of the theory by practitioners and scholars. By using this resource, it will help the research in identifying what constitutes being directive and what it is not in respect to RCCT.
Kensit, DA. (2000). Rogerian theory: a critique of the effectiveness of pure client-
centred therapy. Counselling Psychology Quarterly 13 (4): 345-51.
The paper evaluates the fundamental accuracy of the major tenets of CCT which are phenomenology, innate self-actualization and the organismic valuing process, unconditional positive regard and genuineness. The article cites a number of empirical studies conducted to test these fundamentals principles which reported positive reports in the approach`s ability to generate improved outcomes for clients. When applied in dealing with persons with sociopathic problems and schizophrenia, the results were very positive with both long term and short term positive improvement in behavior observed in both cases. The article also acknowledges criticism of the fundamentals of RCCT. One criticism notes that RCCT fails to acknowledge the role of pro-social behavior and socio-cultural factors in shaping individual behaviors and attitudes. The socio-cultural environment impacts the change into positive behavior away from the therapy setting characterized by empathic understanding. Another shortfall of RCCT is that it over-emphasizes the innateness of empathy and is over optimistic in terms of self-actualization and the organismic valuing process. In short, the article indicates that CCT is just a theory which is not applicable in all situations. The article goes further to compare CCT to Ivey`s microcounselling and Kagan`s interpersonal process recall approaches. Same as CCT, they do not have holistic approach and are best suited for specific situations. In summary, the article concludes that CCT is one of the major theories in therapy which fosters positive change but it does not offer a holistic approach that makes it fit for all situations.
The article is very useful to the study as it questions the application of CCT in a counseling setting in the 21[st] century. The paper is related to other sources to be used in that it notes the strength of CCT in light of other theories and especially in counseling. The resource, like all others uses in this research are peer reviewed hence reliable. The article is objective in nature. The author does not seek to argue his point of view but rather presents the views expressed by other scholars on RCCT. He assesses the theory in a specific setting and notes the theory has its strengths and weaknesses.
The article is very helpful to the current study. After formulating the topic, the researcher searched for sources from various databases and this one stood out because it questions RCCT. This has not been done by many other resources as all the others used in this study support use of CCT and give biased views about the theory. This research is important as it not only assists me as budding professional on how to apply RCCT but also informs the researcher on best ways to apply the theory in real life situations. Furthermore, it informs on the potential pitfalls and opposition to the theory that one might consider in choosing which approach to use in professional practice and also in articulating the current study`s argument.
Kirschenbaum, H., & Jourdan, A. (2005). The current status of Carl Rogers and the person-centered approach. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 42(1), 37-51. doi:10.1037/0033-3204.42.1.37
The article assesses the relevance of RCCT in the modern world. The article concludes that the theory remains still very relevant especially in three major ways. This is indicated by the number of current publications (books, journals and chapters) on the theory which are 777 with (1987-2004), and 604 (1946-1986) with Rogers accounting for over 200 of them. As of 2004, CTT was the fifth most covered theory with 777 articles listed in the PsyINFO. Secondly by the number of current organizations and journals which apply and recognize the approach in their training and studies. The two main organizations are Person-Centered Counseling and Psychotherapy (NEAPCEPC) and World Association for Person- Centered and Experiential Psychotherapy and Counseling (WAPCEPC). Thirdly is by assessing current psychotherapy practices and their use and application of the conditions stipulated by the RCCT. In short, the article seeks to find out whether RCCT is still relevant in the 21[st] century having been developed in the first half of the 20[th] century. The author indicates the theory is relevant though it has been advanced in some areas and received praise and criticism in equal measure. The main areas of RCCT applied and noted in the paper are congruence, empathy and unconditional positive regard. Thus the article shows that RCCT has not lost its relevance in today`s field of psychotherapy.
This article is very useful to the study. It presents some very interesting data especially on the number of publications on RCCT by the time of the article`s publication. The article notes various advancements and improvements in the theory carried out by current experts in psychotherapy using RCCT. The article cites immensely the works of Rogers, with some used in the current research but none by other authors. The article is relevant in that it reiterates the fact that RCCT is still relevant today though the approach was developed in the 1940`s. It has achieved this by taking a subjective stance in regards to the theory. The author researched on articles dealing with RCCT that are only available to him and its application in practice in a subjective manner. Nonetheless, this does not affect its quality.
The paper is very helpful to the current study. It presents an overview of the relevance of the theory by sampling previous works by Rogers and other authors. It will help the current study in articulating the development and the changes in the theory and how they have affected its application in practice over the years. This is very important given the fact that some sources used in the research are quite old while others are more recent. The content of the article informs the study that the approach will gradually change and even be modified in future as it has done over the years.
Rogers, C. R. (1979). The foundations of the person-centered approach. Education, 100(2), 98. Retrieved from
The article discusses in depth four major foundations of client-centered approach. They are: actualizing tendency, genuineness or congruence unconditional positive regard, and empathic understanding. These conditions create an environment that makes a client feel at a deep level that their subjective experiences are respected and well understood. The conditions create an environment which enables an individual to tap into his/her inner resources of self-understanding to alter behavior positively. Rogers identifies actualizing tendency as the foundational belief that therapist must have of their client`s. Actualizing tendency is the belief that everyone has the capacity and desire to enhance their lives. In the article, Rogers details how therapist professionalism and expertise might interfere with key conditions of CTT such as non-directivity. One of the cited supports for the approach is the sensory deprivation theory which posits that the desired state of an organism is stimulation which corresponds to feelings in RCCT. In general, the paper emphasizes the importance of attitude under the organic matter tendency in a therapy setting as it creates the right environment for positive change which is innate and not imposed by the therapist but discovered by the client with the facilitation of the therapist.
The article is relatively useful for the current study. In other papers by Rogers to be used in this current study, the importance of attitude in creating the right of environment has already been discussed only that this particular paper goes deeper. It is written in first person hence subjective and expresses the author`s personal views on RCCT which are supported from other sources. The article does not at any one point acknowledge alternative views to RCCT.
The article is very useful to the researcher in various ways. First, it is one of the few articles that clearly explain and articulate the organic which stipulates that clients usually have the ingredient for positive change but have not discovered them. Furthermore, it is one of the early works on the theory by Rogers in which he clearly identifies the original conditions necessary for the approach to apply. This will contribute to my argument in laying emphasis on the organic system. Furthermore, the article has explained one area of RCCT which is not the easiest to apply, keeping the right attitude.
Rogers, C. R. (2007). The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 44(3), 240-248. doi:10.1037/0033-3204.44.3.240
The article discusses the conditions necessary to achieve or initiate constructive personality change. Six conditions are outline in the paper and each covered as a subtopic extensively. The first major condition is that two persons are in therapeutic contact while the rest of the conditions define their relationship. Secondly, the client is in a state of incongruence in which his self concept does not match with his experience. Thirdly, the therapist is in a state of congruence in which he is self aware and is himself around the client. Fourthly, the therapist expresses unconditional positive regard for the client, where he accepts all aspects of the client. The fifth core condition is empathy, the therapist tries to understand the client as he views himself. Lastly, the client is minimally aware of the therapist`s unconditionally positive regard and empathy. All these conditions must be present for constructive personality change to occur while the intensity of each condition determines the magnitude of constructive personality change. In general, the article offers requisites to therapists on preparing to apply and RCCT. The article is thus an updated user guide manual to therapists wishing to apply RCCT.
The article is advancement of earlier works by the same author, Rogers (1979), where he previously identified three conditions but are expanded to six in this article. The article is very useful in understanding RCCT both academic and practical use and is relevant and responsive to developments in the field. However, as an article, it is very subjective as it offers a one sided view of RCCT and the conditions. The author does not fully acknowledge and explain conditions that may hinder application of RCCT. On the overall, it is a great resource especially based on the fact that it is authored by the developer of the theory.
For the current research, the article is very helpful as it offers an updated view on the necessary conditions in applying RCCT from the experience of the founder of the theory. The paper does not change the study`s approach to the topic but instead strengthens believe in the theory and its applicability in real life. By breaking the conditions down, the approach appears more appealing and even easy to use.
Rogers, C. R. (1946). Significant aspects of client-centered therapy. American Psychologist, 1(10), 415-422. doi:10.1037/h0060866
The article is one of the early works of Rogers that explains what makes RCCT different from other approaches. It identifies three major aspects of RCCT as the predictability of the client centered therapy process, the discovery of new attitudes and untapped potential in the client and the character of the client-therapist relationship. The author further narrates that the knowledge in the fact that deep lying behavioral strengths in clients can be released in an ordered predicable process by creating the right psychological atmosphere means that the theory can be applied in diverse situations. Based on this, CCT can be employed education, philosophy, medicine, sociology, management among other fields where desired change can be predicted and the right conditions created to bring out the inner strengths. On the overall, the article explains the process of therapy where clients experience a reorganization of attitudes and behavior through a predictable process under specific conditions provided by the therapist which is the mainstay of RCCT.
The article is critical to my research as it records the changes in ideology and views of RCCT over time. Of importance is that the article identifies six conditions that must be present for the approach to work. These six conditions have been refined and fine-tuned in later works and named the determinants of client-therapist relationship in recent works in Rogers (2007). The comparison between the author`s earlier works will capture the influences of new theories and knowledge in the field of therapy and how they have impacted RCCT. The article is subjective as the author is intent on showing that RCCT is superior to other therapeutic approaches. He also achieves the articles goal of showing how RCCT differs from other approaches.
The article will help the researcher trace how RCCT has incorporated new knowledge and been influenced by changes in other fields. The article shows that theories are constantly evolving to accommodate new knowledge. In regards to the topic, the author convinces his readers that RCCT is one of the best approaches in the field as it evolves with time.
Rogers, C. R. (1949). The attitude and orientation of the counselor in client-centered
therapy. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 13(2), 82-94. doi:10.1037/h0059730
This article sets out to clearly show that a therapist`s individual philosophy impacts how he delivers services to clients. A therapist philosophical view of human beings determines the attitude towards clients and his belief and trust in the client to self-direct in line with RCCT. To drive this point home, the article covers the topic of individual philosophy, attitude, orientation and self-directiveness. In simple terms the article emphasizes that a therapist`s attitude towards clients and people and his philosophy in life influences how he applies CCT in facilitating the client to self-direct and attain positive behavioral change.
This source was very helpful for the researcher`s personal understanding of the role of the therapist`s attitude. For the current study, the article claims that a therapist`s attitude is not just relevant in therapy setting but also outside the therapy setting. Therefore, the article complements the contribution of other sources by going deeper on how attitude and orientation contributes to creating the positive change desired by clients. This makes the resource very reliable for the current research and even for future use in practice. The article is subjective in nature. The author selectively uses specific resources to support his views on CCT. His main claim about CCT in the paper is explaining how a therapist`s innate being and his experiences in life and training contribute in shaping his attitude and philosophy in life. This innate self affects how he emphatically understands clients as required by CCT.
The article makes an interesting read. It provides new perspectives on the role of therapist attitudes and his persona in applying RCCT. The article has informed the researcher that the character of a therapist besides his training plays a greater role than previously thought. Such new information on the relevance of a therapist`s character will be given more emphasis in the research.
Stolorow, R. D. (1976). Psychoanalytic reflections on client-centered therapy in the light of modern conceptions of narcissism. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice, 13(1), 26-29. doi:10.1037/h0086479
The article identifies two broad groups of psychopathological formations namely transference neuroses and narcissistic disturbances. In transference neuroses, individual have developed fully to have a consolidated self-image or self-representation. In the narcissistic disturbances, individuals have not developed a fully internal structures or consolidated self-image or self-representation. Their identity is tied to objects as they have no internal evaluation loci hence are similar to CCT clients. Therapeutic progress can only be achieved by the analyst humbling himself to be a non-person that mirrors the grandiosity of the patient and allow the client to unfold within the totally accepting medium of analyst as mirror. Consequently, self-representation becomes internalized and structuralized. Therefore, the use of CCT by therapists is similar to analytic treatment of narcissistic disturbances by analytic therapists. The article thus draws parallels between the treatment of narcissistic disturbances in psychoanalysis as formulated by Kohut (1971) and therapy treatment using the CCT approach as formulated by Rogers.
The article is very important to the study. It depicts CCT as an approach that is supported by the field of analysis treatment. The idea of mirroring the client`s representation and empathic understanding without interpretation or judgment as required in CCT is a proven strategy in another filed. This not only points to the strength of the theory but also its application in other fields such as therapy analysis. The article achieves this through a subjective stance that displays CCT in one dimension but does not discuss its application in other fields.
In the current study, the article will serve to strengthen the case for use of CCT in therapy. The article also links the use of CCT in treatment of therapeutic disturbances in analytic therapy which points to future directions in research anticipating collaborations between the two fields. It also notes the importance CCT in creating the right conditions and environment to apply other theories in other types of therapy.

Close Menu