Biology Overview Questions

Question 1
Part A
The autotrophs have the capacity of utilizing solar energy to
manufacture food through the process of photosynthesis. During the
process of photosynthesis, green plants and some bacteria and algae use
the solar energy to produce glucose, sucrose and other compounds that
heterotrophs burn in order to obtain energy. When the ruminants eat
plants, they obtain cellulose from the plants. Because ruminants have
the enzyme cellulose in their digestive tract, the breakdown of
cellulose to glucose is possible. After the enzyme cellulose acts on
cellulose to release glucose, the ruminants are able to use the glucose
for their energy purposes.
Part B
The enzyme cellulose has the role of breaking down cellulose into
glucose in order to help animals obtain energy for their cellular
functions. Animals are not capable of obtaining energy directly like
plants because they do not have the ability to absorb sunlight energy
and use it for the production of glucose used in the cellular
activities. In the animal kingdom, the distribution of the enzyme
cellulose is evident in nematodes, herbivores, and arthropods.
Part C
Marginal lands have little or no potential for profit and usually have
poor soils and other unfavorable conditions. Marginal lands need to be
utilized in a sustainable manner grazing on these lands utilizes plants
that grow in the lands. Therefore, grazing on these lands is viewed as a
sustainable way of utilizing marginal lands because the lands do not go
into waste as they become profitable.
Gastric fermentation in ruminants leads to the production of methane and
carbon dioxide, which constitute the greenhouse gases. These gases have
an effect to the environment since they cause the warming up of the
atmosphere. These gases permit the sun’s radiation to penetrate the
earth’s atmosphere, but prevent the radiation from leaving the
atmosphere. It is vital for the earth to release the radiation so as to
prevent overheating. The increase in temperature causes a change in the
climate patterns.
Question 2
Mutation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator
(CFTR) gene becomes causes the structure of the gene to change. The
structure usually changes through the deletion of three DNA nucleotides.
The mutation by deletion leads to the delition of phenylalanine amino
acid at position 508 of the protein sequence. This alters the
functioning of the cell as the mutated CFTR gene encoding the CFTR
protein is not capable of functioning properly as a channel for the
movement of chloride ions. This affects the functioning of the lungs and
pancreas as the water and salt balance on the se epithelial surfaces is
not balanced since the chloride ions are capable of moving in and out of
the cells. Therefore, the structure of a mutated CFTR gene explains the
physiological effects of cystic fibrosis in the pancreas and pancreas
because the structure makes it difficult for the CFTR protein to
maintain a balance of the chloride ions on these epithelial surfaces.
Question 3
Living organisms need to maintain a stable PH. This is exceedingly vital
since it ensures survival of the living organisms without maintaining a
stable PH, the living organisms will definitely die. A stable PH ensures
that all the cellular activities in the body of living organisms are
carried out without any problem. In case, there is unfavorable PH in the
body of a living organism, cell functioning is stopped leading to the
death of the living organism. This implies that living organisms must
maintain a stable PH in order to maintain survival. Lysosomes should
maintain a stable PH so as to support the functioning of enzymes that
break down cellular debris and waste materials. The lysosome maintains
this stable PH by pumping protons from the cytosol across cell membrane
via proton pumps and via chloride ion channels.
Question 4
Regulation of genes can occur through various mechanisms. One such
mechanism entails the altering of the specifity of RNA polymerase for a
certain promoter making it less or more likely to bind them. Another
mechanism entails activators enhancing the interaction amid RNA
polymerase and a certain promoter, which encourage the expression of the
gene. Activators increase the attraction of polymerase for a promoter.
In addition, another mechanism involves general transcription factors
positioning RNA polymerase at the start of a protein coding sequence and
releasing the polymerase in order to transcribe the mRNA. Different cell
types regulate gene expression differently cell type specific
expression of genes is achieved through combining transcription factors
(TFs) to the sequence elements in the regulatory regions. Abnormal gene
regulation results to genetic diseases such as the cancer of the immune
system cells. This hinders the functioning of the immune system cells
leading to the death of an organism.
Question 5
Hunger is one of the problems affecting the world. This problem can be
dealt with using the biological perspective, where the production of
genetically modified foods can be encouraged so as to increase food
security. Access and availability of food is capable of eliminating the
problem of hunger. The problem can also be solved through theological
perspective, where individuals that are well up should help the poor.
This will help in ending poverty, which implies people will be able to
afford food. In addition, the problem can also be solved using a
philosophical insight, where people should focus on the perspective of
creating equality. The perspective of equality in a society will help in
sharing resources equally among individuals, a move that will help in
eliminating hunger since all individuals will have resources that they
can use to produce food.
Question 6
Part A
The blood of the Antarctic ice fish has no hemoglobin, but the fish is
capable of surviving without hemoglobin because it has a large heart and
utilizes blood plasma in circulating oxygen throughout the body. The
evolution in a cold, oxygen rich environment helped the fish to relax
selective pressure in maintaining the expression of oxygen binding
proteins. One chief element in the success of the Antarctic ice fish is
its evolution at cold temperature. In case, the evolution occurred at a
warm temperature, the loss of transport and oxygen binding proteins
could have severely compromised delivery leading to a lethal mutation.
Part B
The baleen whales do not possess teeth, but the early baleen whales had
teeth that had been inherited from their ancestors. Through evolution,
changes have occurred to the baleen whales making them lack teeth they
possess baleen plates for filtering water and food. The presence of
teeth in the ancestors and the absence of the same in the modern adult
baleen whale can only be explained by evolution.
Part C
The Pax-6 gene that stimulates eye development is present in insects,
reptiles, birds and mammals. In case a human version of the gene becomes
inserted into a fly, it will have the capacity of triggering the
development of the eye of an insect. This is because this constitutes a
homologous gene that is, the gene controls the same trait. Hence, that
of a human will be capable of triggering eye development in an insect.

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