BASIC RESEARCH CONCEPTS AND TECHNIQUES

Basic Research Concepts and Techniques
TOPIC: ALCOHOL AND HEALTH
Student`s Name
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Course Name, Course Number
Instructor`s Name
A. Ten Sources
1. Govier, A., & Rees, C. (2013). Reducing alcohol-related health risks: the role of the nurse.Nursing Standard, 27(50), 42-46.
This article discusses the negative impacts of alcohol consumption along with statistics to support evidence of social and health problem related to alcohol misuse. Nurses are encouraged to take into account their responsibility in advising and educating patients regarding safe drinking limits. In addition, this article recognizes some of the issues with adhering to safe drinking limits such as miscalculation of alcohol content. The article also provides emphasis on nursing interventions that can be utilized with all patients in order to increase their awareness about the negative impacts of too much alcohol consumption.
2. Ludbrook, A., Petrie, D., McKenzie, L., & Farrar, S. (2012). Tackling Alcohol Misuse: Purchasing Patterns Affected by Minimum Pricing for Alcohol. Applied Health Economics and Health Policy, 10(1), 51-63.
Alcohol consumption is linked to various social and health troubles that escalate with the alcohol consumption level. Economic theory reveals that increasing cost is successfulat the population level. This paper seeks to determine patterns of procuring of low-priced off-trade alcohol merchandises, concentrating on income as well as the level of alcohol bought.
3. Yi-lang, T., Xiao-jun, X., Xu-yi, W., Cubells, J. F., Babor, T. F., & Wei, H. (2013). Alcohol and alcohol-related harm in China: policy changes needed. Bulletin Of The World Health Organization, 91(4), 270-276. doi:10.2471/BLT.12.107318
This paper calls for the urgent need for health professionals as well as government administrators in China to concentrate on research, interventions, and population surveillance intended to lessen disorders related to alcohol use.
4. Lock, C. A., Kaner, E., Heather, N., Doughty, J., Crawshaw, A., McNamee, P., …& Pearson, P. (2006). Effectiveness of nurse‐led brief alcohol intervention: a cluster randomized controlled trial. Journal of advanced nursing, 54(4), 426-439.
Too much alcohol drinking is a primary source of health, social, and economic problems. Nonetheless, such drinking is responsive to alcohol intervention. At present, brief intervention exploration in primary health care emphasizes interventions led by general practitioners and there is merely circumstantial evidence of effectiveness in interventions led by nurses. However, the number of nurses taking initiative in promoting health in primary care is increasing. This paper discusses an assessment of the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of screening and intervention led by nurses in decreasing too much alcohol drinking among individuals in primary health care
5. Grant, B. F., Dawson, D. A., Stinson, F. S., Chou, S. P., Dufour, M. C., & Pickering, R. P. (2004). The 12-month prevalence and trends in DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence: United States, 1991 – 1992 and 2001 – 2002. Drug and alcohol dependence, 74(3), 223-234.
Alcohol dependence and abuse can be disabling, but precise information is insufficient on the pervasiveness of current DSM-IV alcohol dependence and abuse and how this has altered over the past 10 years. This study presents nationally representative data on the pervasiveness of 12-month DSM-IV alcohol dependence and abuse in 2001-2002 and examines trends in alcohol dependence and abuse between 1991-1992 and 2001-2002.
6. Hendriks, H., de Bruijn, G., & van den Putte, B. (2012). Talking about alcohol consumption: Health campaigns, conversational valence, and binge drinking intentions. British Journal Of Health Psychology, 17(4), 843-853.
This study presents the outcome of a research made as to whether campaign impacts the people`s decision about drinking alcohol. This study reveals that campaign does not affect the people`s decision to drink alcohol.
7. Pacek, L. R., Malcolm, R. J., & Martins, S. S. (2012). Race/Ethnicity Differences between Alcohol, Marijuana, and Co-occurring Alcohol and Marijuana Use Disorders and Their Association with Public Health and Social Problems Using a National Sample. American Journal On Addictions, 21(5), 435-444.
Alcohol, along with marijuana, is a commonly misused substance. This study explores the misuse of alcohol based on race or ethnicity differences. The study made use of 13,872 respondents. The study reveals that alcohol use was prevalent among Americans and Hispanics than African-Americans.
8. Boluarte, T. A., Mossialos, E., &Rudisill, C. (2011). The Impact of Alcohol Policies across Europe on Young Adults` Perceptions of Alcohol Risks. Cesifo Economic Studies, 57(4), 763-788.
This study analyzes how alcohol policies impact the risk perceptions of adolescents about alcohol. Through the use of 2008 Flash Eurobarometer Survey titled `Young people and drugs`, 12,312 (15-24 year old) resident citizens across the 27 EU member states participated. It was revealed in this study that most alcohol policies tested did not have significant effect on risk perceptions.
9. Delany, P. J., Shields, J. J., Willenbring, M. L., & Huebner, R. B. (2008). Expanding the Role of Health Services Research as a Tool to Reduce the Public Health Burden of Alcohol Use Disorders. Substance Use & Misuse, 43(12/13), 1729-1746.
This study presents the cost of excessive alcohol use and the significant gap between development in community-based care and research findings. In addition, this study recommends research on distribution and application of evidence-based practices as well as enhancing access to care for people who are considered heavy users.
10. Gordon, R., & Anderson, P. (2011). Science and alcohol policy: a case study of the EU Strategy on Alcohol. Addiction, 10655-66.
This study describes the degree to which the European Commission`s Communication`s content on alcohol mirrors public health-based controlled evidence. Documents were carefully read and examined for evidence-based alcohol procedure content. The Commission places more importance on policy activities with less substantiation for efficacy than on those with robust evidence.
B. Visual Presentation
Article
Govier, A., & Rees, C. (2013). Reducing alcohol-related health risks: the role of the nurse. Nursing Standard, 27(50), 42-46.
Alcohol, along with marijuana, is a commonly misused substance (Pacek et al, 2012). The increasing incidence of alcohol consumption in the United Kingdom has now been slowly recognized. Health problems due to excessive alcohol consumption have consisted 4% of the total death incidents. Preventing consumption of alcohol is a complex process. Alcohol performs a significant role in various social events. The health promotion method gives emphasis on lifestyle modification. The process of assessing maximum point of alcohol consumption has significantly altered. Despite the potential function of the nurse in escalating awareness of the problems associated with binge drinking, there is no accurate awareness on what nurses are supposed to do to help lessen problems associated with alcohol drinking.
The chart above shows that from 1950 to 200, alcohol consumption has increased. According to Pietre et al (2012), Alcohol consumption is linked to various social and health troubles that escalate with the alcohol consumption level.
Literature Review
The most pressing concern at the moment is underage drinking. Once it has established its presence, underage drinking becomes an ailment and not just a mere moral issue. Underage drinking can persist until adulthood. It is during adulthood in which not much attention is given to the level of alcohol consumed. The Royal College of Psychiatrists warned that older individuals are disregarded when assessing for detrimental levels of alcohol drinking (Govier and Reese, 2013, p. 43). Such claim was supported by Parkes and Wilson who stated that older individuals do not come across thestereotypes related with `problem drinkers`(Govier and Reese, 2013, p. 43). In the same way, women who have more income and live in slum areas are vulnerable to excessive drinking (Govier and Reese, 2013, p. 43).
Alcohol consumption is linked to various social and health troubles that escalate with the alcohol consumption level (Ludbrook et al, 2012 Lock et al, 2006). There are several reasons why people, particularly, adolescents or young adults drink alcohol. The figure above shows the potential negative impacts of adolescent substance abuse. Nurses play a crucial role in educating patients concerning the effects of alcohol abuse and how to avoid these negative effects. In China, health professionals as well as government administrators are asked to concentrate on research, interventions, and population surveillance intended to lessen disorders related to alcohol use (Yi-lang et al, 2013). In another study conducted by Boluarte et al (2011), it was revealed in this study that most alcohol policies tested did not have significant effect on risk perceptions.
Methodology
In this study, a random sampling of alcoholic individuals was made. There were 297 respondents. Each of them was provided with a one unit measure of alcohol.
Data Analysis
Respondents chose sample glasses that have capacities diverging between 250mL and 360mL. Such content was twice the recommended glass size. The results also showed that 49% of the respondents did not have any idea on the recommended allowance.
Conclusion
Nurses are encouraged to work collaboratively with alcoholic individuals and teach them how to measure alcohol content using online tools. Nurses are also encouraged to provide advice. No ethical issues have been found in this study. Methodology was appropriate in determining the knowledge of alcoholic individuals about alcohol content and to recognize what nurses can do to correct knowledge inadequacies.
C. Additional Ten Sources
1. Advanced practice nurse`s role in alcohol abuse group therapy. (2007). Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, 25(1), 64-69.
2. A. F., Goodall, C. A., Crawford, A. A., Smith, I. I., Russell, A. A., &Montoya, I. (2013). The pathology of alcohol use and abuse.Clinical Laboratory Science: Journal Of The American Society For Medical Technology, 26(1), 15-22.
3. Bouchery, E. E., Harwood, H. J., Sacks, J. J., Simon, C. J., & Brewer, R. D. (2013). Correction: `Economic costs of excessive alcohol consumption in the U.S., 2006`. American Journal Of Preventive Medicine, 44(2), doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2012.12.003
4. Dávalos, M., Fang, H., & French, M. (2012). Easing the pain of an economic downturn: macroeconomic conditions and excessive alcohol consumption. Health Economics, 21(11), 1318-1335. doi:10.1002/hec.1788
5. Hamilton, I., & Baker, S. (2013). Nurses` role in tackling problematic alcohol use. Practice Nursing, 24(7), 351-355.
6. Holland, I. S. (2008). Delivery of a brief motivational intervention to patients with alcohol-related facial injuries: Role for a specialist nurse. British Journal Of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, 46(2), 102. doi:10.1016/j.bjoms.2007.11.013
7. Kiernan, C., Ni Fhearail, A., & Coyne, I. (2012). Nurses` role in managing alcohol misuse among adolescents. British Journal Of Nursing, 21(8), 474-478.
8. Minassian, A., Vilke, G., & Wilson, M. (2013). Frequent Emergency Department Visits are More Prevalent in Psychiatric, Alcohol Abuse, and Dual Diagnosis Conditions than in Chronic Viral Illnesses Such as Hepatitis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus. The Journal Of Emergency Medicine, 45(4), 520-525. doi:10.1016/j.jemermed.2013.05.007Oakey, F. F., Ayoub,
9. Sacks, J., Roeber, J., Bouchery, E., Gonzales, K., Chaloupka, F., & Brewer, R. (2013). State costs of excessive alcohol consumption, 2006. American Journal Of Preventive Medicine,45(4), 474-485. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2013.06.004
10. Tuithof, M., Ten Have, M., van den Brink, W., Vollebergh, W., & de Graaf, R. (2013). The Relationship Between Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Use Disorders According to DSM-IV and DSM-5. Alcoholism, Clinical And Experimental Research,

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