Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography for Howard Gardner
Armstrong, T. (1994). Multiple intelligences in the classroom.
Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
In this article, Armstrong has described the seven intelligences
demonstrated by Howard Gardner. These include the linguistic
intelligence, spatial intelligence, bodily kinesthetic intelligence,
musical intelligence, interpersonal intelligence and intrapersonal
intelligence. The author offers informal checklist that enhances
identification of the personal strengths in intelligence as well as
proposing their applications in classrooms. The book is crucial for
teachers at all levels due to its concrete suggestions on applications
in classrooms.
Checkley, K. (1997). A Conversation with Howard Gardner. Educational
Leadership, 55, 8-13.
The journal presents an interview where Gardner discusses the criteria
used in determining intelligence. He emphasizes on Naturalist
Intelligence where he explodes myths on multiple intelligence theory,
and he distinguishes the different learning styles as well as multiple
intelligences. In his distinction, an aspect of proper teaching method
comes out. He identifies the response of children to various situations
in learning.
Davis, R. (1991). Learning how to Learn: technology, the seven multiple
intelligences and Learning. Spring CUE Conference paper, Palm Springs,
CA. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, No. ED338214.
In this paper, Davis reviews the different educational software programs
that used in supporting learning by use of multiple intelligences. In
his illustration, the author uses the Snooper Troops and enumerates the
activities which highlight the intelligences. Despite the weakness of
musical intelligence activities, the software goes hand on hand with the
songwriting in order to list clues in a musical way.
Gardner, H., & DiNozzi, R. (1996). MI:Intelligence. Understanding and
the mind. Los Angeles , Into the Classroom Media.
In this article, Gardner presents a theory on multiple intelligence
where he outlines the original seven and eighth. He argues that
addressing such intelligences within the classroom environment enhance
the accessibility of the students to a comprehensive understanding
instead of factual knowledge. Gardner offers a profound insight on
issues regarding learning with the aim of gaining a comprehensive
understanding.
Harvard, P. Z. (2000). Project Summit. Retrieved September 27, 2001,
from Schools Using Multiple Intelligence Theory. Retrieved From:
HYPERLINK “http://pzweb.harvard.edu/summit/”
http://pzweb.harvard.edu/summit/
The Gardner’s research group created this site while in Harvard. This
aimed at identifying, documenting as well as promoting the effectiveness
of the MI implementation. The paper identifies the schools that
implemented the MI theory successfully. Furthermore, the site presents
the “Compass Points” that illustrates the principles that common to
such schools, which implemented the MI theory. The site represents an
outstanding model for teachers interested in applying the MI theory in
classrooms.
Fact Sheet
Early Life
Howard Gardner was born in 1943, in America. He is a developmental
psychologist at Harvard University. He is the senior director of the
Harvard project Zero and the co-director of GoodWork project. Gardner
worked closely with psychoanalyst Roger Brown and Erik Erikson. In
1980s, Gardner took part in the formulation of the school reforms.
Social life
Gardner’s wife is Ellen Winner, and they have one child, Benjamin.
Gardner has three other children from an earlier marriage. According to
Gardner, the best way to describe him was ‘a studious child who
pleasured himself in playing the piano. Currently, he is a board member
of Amherst College and museum of the modern art. He was at Spencer
Foundation Board for ten years.
His influence in teaching and learning
He formulated the multiple intelligences theory in 1983 and received an
award in 2011 for formulating the theory. The theory indicates that
people have different ways of processing information and learning which
remain independent of each other. The synthesis of information from
various sources indicates that the independent processing of information
comprises the ‘multiple intelligences’. His project Zero program in
1972-2000 enhanced understanding of learning, creativity and thinking.
Impacts of his work to the education system
The reception of his theory of multiple intelligences in United States
remained relatively low. He argued that standardized tests applied in
current education system, in America, remained considerably lower than
his measure of multiple intelligences. However, this varied from one
person to another, hence the need for determination of the ways of
establishing the most efficient way of learning for each. The theory
indicates that students can be served better using a broader vision
pertaining education. Therefore, teachers can use various exercises,
methodologies and activities in reaching out their students at all
levels.
Impact to the urban education
The theory answered many questions regarding teachers’ experiences. He
expressed the need for teachers to understand the different learning
capacities of the students. The bottom line remains at the deep interest
in the minds of children and establishing their differences. As a
result, urban schools can adapt MI in their curriculum in lesson design,
interdisciplinary units, apprenticeships, assessments and student
projects. The adoption of MI acts as an avenue for administrators,
parents and teachers in understanding the student. This can enable them
to explore and learn in different ways, hence better appreciation of
their strengths to stimulate learning.
References
Armstrong, T. (1994). Multiple intelligences in the classroom.
Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Checkley, K. (1997). A Conversation with Howard Gardner. Educational
Leadership, 55, 8-13.
Davis, R. (1991). Learning how to Learn: technology, the seven multiple
intelligences and Learning. Spring CUE Conference paper, Palm Springs,
CA . ERIC Document Reproduction Service, No. ED338214.
Gardner, H., & DiNozzi, R. (1996). MI:Intelligence. Understanding and
the mind. Los Angeles , Into the Classroom Media.
Harvard, P. Z. (2000). Project Summit. Retrieved September 27, 2001,
from Schools Using Multiple Intelligence Theory. Retrieved From:
HYPERLINK “http://pzweb.harvard.edu/summit/”
http://pzweb.harvard.edu/summit/
ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY PAGE * MERGEFORMAT 6
ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1

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