An innovation audit of Coca Cola Company CONTENT

Company`s background …………………………………………………….,,,…………..3
The rationale for choosing Coca Cola Company ………………………………………..3
Methodology ………………………………………………………………………………..4
Primary Research …………………………………………………….,,………….4
Secondary Research ……………………………………………………………….5
The Potential challenges of conducting an inquiry for innovation audit……….5
Innovation Findings ……………………………………………………………………….6
4.1.0. Innovation Context …………………………………………………………………6
4.1.1 People and Organization …………………………………………………………. 6
1.1. Organization structure ………………………………………………………..6
4.1. 1.2. Organization climate ……………………………………………………….. 6
4.1.1.3. Organization culture ……………………………………………………….. 6
4.1.1.4. Leadership…………………………………………………………………….. 7
4.1.1. Innovation strategy …………………………………………………………………8
4.1.1.1 Types of innovation …………………………………………………………….. 8
4.1.1.1 Speedy Innovation ……………………………………………………………….8
4.2.0. Innovation phase …………………………………………………………………….8
4.2.1. Phase 1: Search ……………………………………………………………………8
4.2.3. Phase 2: Selection ………………………………………………………………..9
4.2.4. Phase 3: Implementation ……………………………………………………….10
4.2.2. Phase 4: Capture…………………………………………………………………11
Evaluation. …………………………………………………………………………………7
Recommendations ………………………………………………………………………. 12
Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………………….. 12
References ……………………………………………………………………………….. 14
Appendix …………………………………………………………………………………. 17
An innovation audit of Coca Cola Company
The company`s background
As documented by Giebelhaus (2008), Coca Cola is one of the popular and largest companies in the world that specialize in beverages. It is an American Company that manufactures retails and markets non-alcoholic drinks, as well as beverages. Coca Cola has its headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia. It has over 500 hundred brands that are served across 200 countries across the world, including Scotland. Arguably, as many as 1.7 billion people are served with Coca Cola beverages a day, across the world. Some of the beverage brands include coca cola, Diet coke, Fanta, Sprite, Del Valle and Minute Maid, among others (Rathunde, 1999). However, the most popular of its beverage brand is Coca Cola, which is attributed to work of John Pemberton 1886. The formula of making Coca Cola, as well as the branding, would later be adopted by the company 1889. The company`s chief executive is Muhtar Kent. This paper documents a report on the innovation audit on Coca Cola Company.
The rationale for choosing Coca Cola Company
It cannot be disputed that Coca Cola Company is one of the most successful international beverage companies across the world. Of particular concern is the view that the evolution of the world has been accompanied by a number of changes, which as far as business is concerned, has compelled firms to devise special means of keeping abreast. Firms that fail to device these means are those who deteriorate. One of the widely advocated means is embracing innovativeness. In this regard, one of the crucial questions is whether Coca Cola`s success is attributable to its innovativeness. If so, what are the features and strategies that exemplify its innovativeness? The fact that the Coca Cola is a successful company implies that the derived information would go a long way in modeling other companies that are aspiring to grow large wide. Besides, we also decided to choose on Coca Cola because it is one of the potential firms that we dream to work, yet we also interested in venturing in beverage industry investment, in the future.
Methodology
Primary Research
The innovation audit information was sought through interview. The research study of the innovation audit of the Coca Cola Company was limited to the Edinburg area. This is because interview is one of the reliable sources of primary information, especially those that cannot be obtained through observation. John MacLean, as one person from the Coca Cola management team, was chosen as the interviewee. The interview was held on 8th of October in Edinburg. This is informed by the reason that the managers occupy a pivotal position in the management of firms, including making critical decisions such as those that regard to innovation abilities. It was expected that the managers are well versed with the information about the Company in which they run, implying that they are a reliable source of information. The mode of interviewing was face-face interview because it is flexible to ensuring the reliability of the obtained information. Despite the fact that John MacLean is a very busy man, he consented to sit for an interview session of 40 minutes. The interview was designed to be as objective as possible to cover as many elements of interview as possible. The adopted objective questionnaire (see appendix A) gives considerations to number of elements. Information was also sought from interviewing other general employees from Edinburg within the same Edinburg locality, during the same day.
Secondary Research
The primary research was complemented by secondary sources of information. The secondary sources of information were crucial in the sense that it offered crucial information about Coca Cola Company, prior to primary research. The secondary sources of information included online sources and print sources, including journals, company magazines and books, as well as social media sites such as face book and twitter. The secondary sources are crucial because they would serve to verify the information obtained from the primary sources.
The Potential challenges of conducting an inquiry for innovation audit
As with a number of interviews, the interview-based investigation is likely to suffer from the desirability bias (McBurney, 1994 Moore, 1995 Walker, 2007). Social Desirability is the likelihood for respondents to answer questions in a manner that is considered conventional and that favors their position. Human beings are rational and gregarious, always willing to present themselves in a manner that is considered desirable. Furthermore, administering questions to children may yield a different impression since they may not be rationally fully-fledged. In this case, the vulnerability of the research study to social desirability bias is high considering it entails a various adult, human beings.
Another limitation pertains to fears of the employees to disclose some information regarding to their firms, in what is referred as the business secrets. Business secrets can be considered as unique strategies that are employed by firms to place them in an advantageous position to others, and which when disclosed, would serve to disadvantage them. Such information includes business management strategies and brand development, among others, encompassing innovation approaches. In many cases, firms have rules that restrict organization from disclosing unauthorized information about the firms. In this regard, the potential fear is that the targeted interviewee may choose to reserve the information that is regarded to be sensitive to the advantage of the company. As far as the secondary sources of information are concerned, the potential fear lies in the reliability of the sources of information and their ability to reflect the trending developments, considering that companies are dynamic.
Innovation Findings
4.1.0. Organization Context
4.1.1 Organization structure
The organization structure is hierarchical. Communication is inclusive and that all the decisions that need to be made are inclusive of all employees and the stakeholders. However, the final decisions often rest upon the managers.
Fig. 1: Part of the organizational structure of Coca Cola Company
In this regard, it can be considered to be mechanistic and adoption of creative suggestions is limited because decisions are subject to the discretion of the managers.
4.1.2. Organization Climate
The working environment has been described as a limited one, considering that it is dominated by the management. This implies that employees in lower hierarchy do make crucial decisions thus, they feel marginalized. The employees are required to follow the current rules and regulation regarding to the operation of the company to produce the results.
Organizational Culture
The organization culture is particularly oriented towards management stipulations. The management expect the employees to act based on the rules of set by the management. This culture can be considered to hamper environment in a number of ways, including hindering communication freedom and motivation, which is conducive for innovation pursuit. Other employees are subject to the manipulation of the management teams.
Leadership
The current leadership within the coca Cola company is autocratic, implying that other employees below the managers feel they are limited by the system that only needs them to conform to the rules. Employees complain that they only need to be seen working, but not to be heard.
Innovation Strategy
4.1.2.1 Types of innovation
Coca Cola is an innovative company, and one of the strategies of priority of Coca Cola Company “innovate the future” and that its dedication towards innovativeness is guided by three pillars innovation process collaboration and thought leadership. The process innovation is concerned about improving the efficiencies within the company, as well realizing profits. Collaboration is concerned about seeking a sustainable alliance with the customers and suppliers to seek opportunities that address the existent challenges. The thought leadership is concerned about understanding the existent challenges, as well as finding the solutions. Coca Cola has sought to adopt technologies, which is considered as a means innovation to sustainable development. The company has sought innovation in regard to management, branding, marketing, supply management and the use of sustainable technologies.
4.1.2.2 Speed of Innovation
Coca Cola Company seems to be concerned about seeking incremental innovations. The company pursues changes that are slow, as opposed to radical ones. For example, the company has slowly continued to increase the number of beverage brands into the market over years, taking time. It is cited that this is because it is concerned about being sure about the feasibility of the innovation, as well as the time allowance for gathering the resources.
4.2.0. Innovation phases
4.2.1. Phase 1: Search
Coca Cola is a creative, as well as an innovative company. The company has adopted a number of innovations. For example, according to Benjamin (2009), Coca Cola Company has been dedicated about finding the opportunities to pursue innovation, through partnership and collaboration, which is aimed at helping the company to avert some of the societal and industrial challenges that impede the company`s innovation capability. In the sustainability plan of Coca Cola Company, the company is concerned about address the environmental, as well as the social challenges, in what can also be considered as upholding the spirit of corporate and social responsibility. In order to realize these goals, the company is sure that innovation would be the only avenue of realizing the success. The stakeholders of Coca Cola Company have high expectation about the company, which they consider to be an ambassador of responsible corporate citizenry of addressing a number of challenges that affect the society. It is also documented that in 2012, the company successfully held a supplier sustainable summit to bring together the suppliers to ensure the realization of the innovative goals. The respondent also suggests seeking collaboration with the partners and the stakeholders as one of the elements that exemplify the Coca Cola`s pursuit for innovation (Tidd & Bessant, 2009 Leonard-Barton, 1992).However, the search phase for innovation is often limited by the top-down management strategy, which limits other employees from communicating to the management team about the innovation strategies. Thus, the search for innovation is mainly limited to the participation of the management team, leaving out other employees at the lower level hierarchy.
4.2.2. Phase 2: Selection
The Coca Cola company is seeking technologies that are aimed at enabling it realize sustainability. The company is concerned about cutting down the carbon footprint by a 33 percent by 2020. The company has come into joint partnership with Exeter University to study the dynamics of recycling in regard to the household consumption and use of the Coca Cola products. This is expected to be the continuation of the 2011 carbon Trust project, which studies the Personal carbon Allowance concept (Morris and Kelly, 2013 Tushman and O`Reilly 2002).
4.2.3. Phase 3: Implementation
Coca Cola has made a number of implementations pertaining to innovativeness. According to Benjamin (2009), besides pursuing quality and product diversification, Coca Cola success stems from large and effective distribution system, ensuring that a substantial number of consumers in over 200 countries access the products. This comes with the employment of a large number of employees to make the system effective. Sales and distribution management system is one of the areas that have taken Coca Cola to great heights of success. There are two distribution and sales approaches that are utilized by Coca cola Company. These are direct and indirect distribution system. Indirect distribution system is characterized by the employment of third party in the distribution of the products. Thus, in indirect distribution channels, companies employ a third party, often referred to as a middle man, to offer a link between the manufacturer and consumers. On the other hand, in direct distribution, only two parties are involved the manufacturer and the consumer. In this regard, direct distribution channel is whereby the manufacturer delivers the products to the market directly with requiring any assistance of another independent party such as a distribution company or the middle man. The decision on whether to employ direct or indirect distribution channels has often depended on the accessibility and distance from the processing zones (Clark, 1980 Leonard-Barton, 1992).
In particular, Coca Cola Company employs indirect distribution channels in areas that are costly in terms of accessibility, and employs direct distribution to areas whose accessibility is cost-effective. For instance, the Coca Cola Company distribution strategies are distinctive for urban and rural segment in Africa and India. In these regions, Coca Cola Company has founded a distribution channel in collaboration with contract and bottling partners. Coca Cola Company distributes its products directly in urban regions and indirectly in the rural areas. What is more, in the situations that the accessibility is adversely hampered by limited infrastructure, the company has modified its distribution strategies, adopting a three-tie distribution model as a way of accessing remote areas and stepping up the sales. This is a distribution channel that creates an allowance for an involvement of various middleman groups (Nagandera, 2010 Tushman and Anderson, 2004). Its remuneration scheme is what keeps Coca Cola Company at the top. Remunerations are payments that are given to the employees in exchange of the services rendered. The company has been dedicated in implementing a compensation scheme that addresses the interest of all the shareholders. Such scheme creates allowance for rewarding all the stakeholders for the exceptional performances, ensuring that it offers substantial motivation. The role of managers is very crucial as far as distribution, as well as the sales of the products is concerned. There are various roles and responsibilities that sales managers are tasked (Boutellier, Gassmann and Zedtwitz, 2000). This includes formulating policies that shape the distribution and sales of the products. This touches on monitoring the distribution processes, advising, making decisions on the behalf of the stakeholders and supervising the processes of exploring new markets (Van de Ven and Poole, 1990 Utterback, 1994).
4.2.4. Phase 4: Capture
The capture stage is the final phase of innovation. In this phase, companies are required to adopt intellectual property protection right for their innovations. Coca Cola well outlines the terms and conditions in regard to its intellectual property rights such as through the seeking patents and trademarks.
Evaluation
Kaplan and Norton (1992) define innovation as a process where an invention or idea is transformed into a service or good with a desirable value. For an idea or an invention to satisfy the criterion of innovation, it must meet a specific need and must be replicable based on certain economic cost. Innovation often entails utilization of information, initiative and imagination to develop improved products. In this regard, it cannot be disputed that Coca Cola company is innovative. Zyman (1999). According to Zyman (1999), as far as process innovation is concerned, the company is concerned about pursuing innovation within the systems and process to enhance efficiency and effectiveness. As an example, the company has sought to install monitoring and targeting equipment to help save natural resources such as water and energy. The company has been dedicated in encouraging employees to share ideas of innovation through the ICON awards. The company has also introduced plant-based packaging strategies to be used by the branches across territories. In regard to though leadership, the company is dedicated in striving to become one of the leaders in recycling. For example, the responded explains that the company has identified that as significant as 47 percent of the carbon foot print is embedded within packaging. It is presupposed that the proportion of packaging can be significantly reduced in the cases of recycling the packaging.
In regard to whether the success of Coca Cola is attributable to the fact that it is innovative, the response was positive. The respondent cited improved efficiency, effectiveness and improved sales as some of the benefits that have come with pursuit for innovation. Indeed, this cannot be disputed because there are a lot of benefits that accompany the pursuit for innovation and explains the relation between innovation and the success if the firms. For instance, it is through innovation that information is adopted to improve the manufacturing systems to increase efficiency such as through reduced wastage. Increased efficiency could imply reduced costs, which is translated to reduced, attractive prices. In another way, it is also through innovation that the quality and value of some of products are improved. The fact that the firm is able to improve the quality of its products implies that its products will attract increased sales (Kerle, 2011 Barrutia, Jose and Gilsanz, 2009). Innovation, when tailored towards sustainable development, is an ultimate avenue of exercising corporate social responsibility, and even ethics. Corporate social responsibility is beneficial in a number of ways (Kuhn, 1996). In particular, it makes the company to be accepted and supported by the society, creating a harmonic environment in which firms operate (Berthon, Nairn and Money 2003 Rothwell, 1994).
Recommendations
Coca Cola Company acknowledges the importance of innovation and is even dedicated in pursuing it. The company has the willpower to realize innovation. However, there are certain areas that need to be addressed, which are considered to limit innovativeness. The company may need to reform is the organization structure, organization climate, organization culture, organization leadership and innovative strategy.
It has also been found that the speed at which Coca Cola Company adopts innovation leaves out a lot to desire. As far as competitive beverage business environment is concerned, the slow pace of innovativeness can make it to fall out of top competition levels. In this regard, there is the need to increase the speed of adoption of innovativeness. Of course, this does not negate the fact that cost-effective evaluation is important, but there is a way in which the process could be hastened to assure speedy adoption of innovation. This can be achieved through such strategies as employee-empowerment and modern resource equipment. Indeed, Kelly and Kranzburg (1978), as well as Verloop (2004) observe that these are the common challenges that impede innovations that innovations need to be fostered through resources, while it might also need a lot of sacrifice to implement such by adopting change.
Moreover, Coca Cola Company should consider seeking ways in which it could reform its organizational structure, organizational culture, and organizational environment, as well as leadership to make it open and inclusive of all the employees within the company, as opposed to the management. This can be achieved through frequent employer-employee demonstrational sessions and interactions to enable the company`s working environment to keep with the pace of current economic demands. It can also be through the inclusion of a participatory management strategy within the company.
7. 0. Conclusion
In conclusion, the study sought to conduct an innovation audit of Coca Cola Company. The information was obtained through interview. One person from the Coca Cola management team was chosen as the interviewee, that is, the brand manager. This was informed by the reason that the managers occupy a pivotal position in the management of firms, including making critical decisions such as those that regard to innovation abilities. It is found that Coca Cola embraces and acknowledges the importance of the innovativeness. This is reflected from the information from the interview, as well as from the secondary sources. It is established that Coca Cola is, indeed, an innovative company, and that one of the strategies of priority of Coca Cola Company “innovate the future”. Its dedication towards innovativeness is guided by three pillars innovation process collaboration and thought leadership. The process innovation is concerned about improving the efficiencies within the company. Collaboration is concerned about seeking a sustainable alliance with the customers and suppliers to seek opportunities that address the existent challenges. The thought leadership is concerned about understanding the existent challenges, as well as finding the solutions. Coca Cola has sought to adopt technologies, which is considered as a means innovation to sustainable development. Innovativeness is also evident in sales management. Besides pursuing quality and product diversification, Coca Cola success stems from large and effective distribution system, ensuring that a substantial number of consumers in over 200 countries access the products. This comes with the employment of a large number of employees to make the system effective through direct and indirect distribution system. It is also indisputable that the success of the Coca Cola Company attributable to the fact that it is innovative. Innovativeness places the company in a position that makes it enhance efficiency and realize social responsibility, which makes to be accepted by the society while attracting sales to overcome competition. However, the company may need to reform is the organization structure, organization climate, organization culture, organization leadership and innovative strategy. There is also the need for Coca Cola Company to increase the speed at which it adopts the innovation.
References
Boutellier, R., Gassmann, O and Zedtwitz, M. (2000). Managing Global Innovation. Berlin: Springer.
Benjamin, L, (2009). “The Pop psychology: The person who saved Coca-Cola Company”. Monitor on Psychology 40 (2): 18-21
Berthon, P., Nairn, and Money, A. (2003), Paradigm Funnel: “Conceptual Tools for Literature Analyses,” Marketing Education Review, Volume 13 (2), pp. 55-66
Barrutia, Jose ́ M. and Gilsanz, A (2009), “e-Service Quality: The Overview and Research Agenda”, International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, Volume 1 (1):29-50
Clark, C. (1980). The Idea Management: How to Motivate Creativity and Innovation. New York: AMACOM.
Giebelhaus, A. (2008). “Coca-Cola Company”. New Georgia Encyclopedia. Georgia Humanities Council
Kaplan, R., Norton, D. (1992) A Balanced Scorecard – Measures that drive performance. Harvard Business Review, 70(2): 23-30
Kuhn, T. (1996), “Structures of Scientific Revolution”, University of Chicago Press, 3rd edition, Chicago.
Kelly, P. & Kranzburg M. (1978). The Technological Innovation: A Critical Review of Current Knowledge. San Francisco: San Francisco Press.
Kerle, R. (2011). Creativity in Organizations: How can creativity become a prime contributor to strategic objectives of an organization? Oxford University Press.
Leonard-Barton, D. (1992) Core capabilities and rigidities: a paradox in the management of new product development. Strategic Management Journal, 13: 111-126
McBurney D., (1994), Methods in Research. London: Brooks and Cole
Moore, M. (1995) Creation of a public value Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Morris, C. and Kelly, A. (2013), “Journal Rankings an ABS Journal Quality Guide”, Management Decision, 47 (9): 1441-1451.
Nagandera, C. (2010). Coca-Cola in India: The Innovative Distribution Strategies with `RED`
Rathunde, K (1999). “An Encyclopedia of Creativity”, London and San Diego, Volume 1 A-, pp. 605-610
Rothwell, R., (1994) Towards a Fifth-generation Innovation Process, International Marketing Review, 11(1): 7-31.
Tidd, J & Bessant, J. (2009). Managing Innovation: An Integration Technological, Market and Organizational Change. Chichester: Wiley.
Trott, P. (2005). An Innovation Management and New Product Development. Prentice Hall.
Tushman, M. and C. O`Reilly I. (2002) Winning through Innovation, The Harvard Business School Press.
Tushman, M.L., P. Anderson (2004) The Management of Strategic Innovation and Change, A collection of readings, Oxford University Press
Utterback, J. (1994). Mastering Dynamics of Innovation. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Van de Ven, A. and Poole, M. (1990) Methods of Studying Innovation Development in the Minnesota Innovational Research Program Organization Science, 193): 34-36.
Verloop, J. (2004) Insight in Innovation: Managing innovation through understanding Laws of Innovation. Elsevier Science.
Walker, R. (2007) The Empirical Evaluation of Innovation Types, Organizational and Environmental Characteristics: Towards a Configuration Framework, Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory Advance Access 3(3): 34-36.
Zyman, S. (1999). An End to Marketing as We Know It. New York: Harper Business
APPENDIX A: questionnaire
What is your position in the Coca Cola Company (e.g. general manager, procurement manager, brand manager etc?)
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What does your position entail?
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How long have you been in the company? What was the beginning position?
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How do you understand the term `innovations`?
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What are the elements that characterize innovativeness?
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In your view, is Coca Cola an innovative company? (Tick the appropriate).
Yes
No
If yes, what are the elements that make you feel that Coca Cola Company is innovative?
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Do you think that the success of Coca Cola is attributable to the fact that it is innovative?
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What is the company doing to foster innovativeness?
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What are some challenges that affect innovation?
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What aspirations does Coca Cola have in regard to the pursuit of innovations?
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How is the company in regard to the following
Organization structure
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Organization climate
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Organization culture
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Organizational leadership
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Innovative strategy
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The speed of innovation adoption ……………………………………………………
APPENDIX B: Filled in questionnaire
What is your position in the Coca Cola Company (e.g. general manager, procurement manager, brand manager etc?)
I am a brand manager in the company.
What does your position entail?
I make some critical decisions in regard to the brand management.
Together with other members within the management team, such as the general managers, the human resource managers, the procurement managers and the strategic managers, meet to discuss and pass some decisions about the issues that affect the firm, and which are not limited to the brand issue.
How long have you been in the company? What was the beginning position?
I have been the employee of Coca Cola Company for 20 years. Initially, I served as a sales agent for 8 years before I was promoted into the current position. Thus, I have served the current position for well about 11 years.
How do you understand the term `innovations`?
Innovation can be considered as a process whereby inventions or ideas are transformed into a service or good with a desirable value.
What are the elements that characterize innovativeness?
The success of the Coca Cola Company
The dynamic nature of the company
The competiveness of the company
In your view, is Coca Cola an innovative company? (Tick the appropriate).

Yes
No
If yes, what are the elements that make you feel that Coca Cola Company is innovative?
We have innovativeness as one of the elements of priority, as far as realization of sustainable development is concerned. One of the sustainable strategies of priority of that we have is “innovate the future.
We have three types of innovation in which the company is seeking to address innovation process collaboration and thought leadership. The process innovation is concerned about improving the efficiencies within the company.
The respondent reports that in 2012, the company successfully held a supplier sustainable summit to bring together the suppliers to ensure the realization of the innovative goals.
Seeking collaboration with the partners and the stakeholders.
Do you think that the success of Coca Cola is attributable to the fact that it is innovative?
Yes. It is through innovativeness that the company has improved efficiency and effectiveness. We have increased sales significantly and reduced costs.
What is the company doing to foster innovativeness?
The company has sought to install monitoring and targeting equipment to help save natural resources such as water and energy.
The company has been dedicated in encouraging employees to share ideas of innovation through the ICON awards. The company has also introduced plant-based packaging strategies to be used by the branches across territories.
Seeking collaboration with the partners and the stakeholders.
Development of new products and diversification e.g., recently, we developed a brand called Novida.
What are some challenges that affect innovation?
Innovations need resources, that is, funding. Innovation is expensive and needs to be funded heavily. Such funds are sometimes limited.
Another challenge pertains to change management. The adoption of innovation can result in overhaul of some systems, as well as staff retraining. This comes with additional challenges.
What aspirations does Coca Cola have in regard to the pursuit of innovations?
We are concerned about ensuring that the company is the leader of innovativeness in the world to assure sustainable development, value creation and satisfaction.
How is the company in regard to the following
Organization structure
We have an organization structure that is hierarchical in nature. We have the chief executive officer, followed by other ranks within the management team, such as the marketing and operation manager, brand manager, in a decreasing hierarchy.
Organization climate
The organization climate is good. We have a good communication between the Coca Cola staff and the management and we encourage innovative ideas.
Organization culture
In Coca Cola Company, we expect all employees to act in line with the demands of the organization. The company already has stipulations of what constitutes the organization culture. The stipulations of the organization culture have been developed by the management, in deliberation with the stakeholders.
Organizational leadership
As with many organizations, the managers are the people to lead others. At coca Cola, manager makes decisions on behalf of the organization. However, we also do welcome suggestions from other employees.
Innovative strategy
Coca Cola Company is very dedicated in realizing sustainable growth. We have been seeking innovation at all levels, ranging from brand development, product diversification, marketing strategies and chain supply management to adoption of new manufacturing technologies.
Speed at which the company adopts the innovations
We are conscious not to rush innovations. Each time we encounter an innovation, we take time to study and analyze its cost-effectiveness. In many cases, this can take time

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