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Alcohol drinking, once established, can trigger illness. Alcohol drinking is associated with a number of body systems and organs failures. Deterioration of the brain transpires from excessive drinking of alcohol. Changes in personality are evident in symptoms such as validation of drinking, pathologic dishonesty, childish behavior, poor decision, antagonism, emotional imbalance, disobedience, refutation of illness, and inadequate insight. Physiologic responses include momentary episode of amnesia, withdrawal responses, and relentless hangovers. Too much alcohol drinking can likewise cause direct damage to tissues of the heart. Because of these negative consequences of excessive alcohol drinking consumption, a lot of people supported the prohibition of alcohol drinking and selling.
On January 16, 1920, the Eighteenth Amendment was approved. The Eighteenth Amendment contains the law that prohibits alcohol. The initial success of prohibiting alcohol can be credited to the efforts of organizations such as the Anti-Saloon League and the Women`s Christian Temperance. The two organizations attempted to encourage counties, states, and cities to utilize greater judgment in the licensing of bars. These organizations called for increased taxes on beer, liquor, and wine. Other advocates pushed for alcohol ban near schools, churches, and public vicinities. Alcohol prohibition was undertaken to diminish corruption and crime, solve social issues, decrease tax burden brought about by poorhouses and prisons, and enhance health and grooming in America. However, the prohibition on alcohol failed. After a while, a greater number of individuals were drinking alcohol – dangerous liquor produced by amateurs. Corruption became rampant, from law enforcement authorities to government officials. A lot of politicians deliberately supported prohibitionist rules while constantly imbibing themselves.
Contrary to a number of rational disputes in support of alcohol banning, the one influential squabble in opposition to such an approach is merely no-nonsense: prohibition does not work. It ought to work, however it does not. The evidence was gathered during the period from 1920 to 1933. The disputes in support of prohibition prior to 1920 were overpowering. The Eighteenth Amendment on alcohol prohibition passed both Upper and the Lower House of Congress and by the needed two-thirds majority in December 1917. However, there were several exceptions to the Eighteenth Amendment. Beer was still brewed legally and liquor was still made accessible for medicinal purposes. People were able to obtain alcohol illegally. Laborers in the alcohol business were able to remove the toxins from industrial alcohol to consume them. Some people continued to distill alcohol at their own premises. Other individuals imported alcohol from nations including Mexico, Canada, and the Caribbean. Some alcohol likewise came from Britain. Organized crime was established during the ratification of the Eighteenth Amendment. A lot of individuals took control over alcohol that was on the government warehouses where they were sold for health purposes. There were bloody shootouts that happened between gangs. Rumrunners and bootleggers were new groups of criminals formed. Corruption was on the rise. Bribery was widespread. Morbidity increased due to consumption of poisonous alcohol.
Thirteen months later, the Eighteenth Amendment was ratified by the needed three quarters of the forty-eight state governing bodies. After being ruled by alcohol ban for thirteen years, conversely, the people revolted. The Twenty first Amendment or Prohibition Repeal passed both Upper and the Lower House of Congress and by the needed two-thirds majority in February 1933. After ten months, the Twenty first Amendment was ratified by the needed three quarters of the forty-eight state governing bodies. Seven months following the approval of the Eighteenth Amendment, another law was ratified. The Nineteenth Amendment gave women their right of suffrage. This appeared to be a success for all advocates of the Prohibition Act as women were believed to be strongly antiliquor. Nevertheless, these women had begun to make arrangement with rumrunners and bootleggers and a number of them took active participation in movements that called for the revoke of the Eighteenth Amendment, the Prohibition Act. Even then, advocates of the Prohibition had massive political control and revoke did not seem likely to happen. Years after, the Great Depression broke. There was an increased in unemployment rates. The unemployment rate is the number of unemployed individuals divided by the total labor force. Those who are not working or affiliated to any company or workplace are defined by the administration as individuals who do not possess a job, have aggressively looked for work in the past four weeks, and are presently vacant for work. Because of increased unemployment rates, people lost their income and expenditures went up until such time that demands for basic necessities were no longer met.
Crime rates rise because of poor economic conditions which may be represented by decrease in property values, high unemployment rates, job cuts, increased rate of home foreclosures, high rate of bankruptcy filings, and crashed stock market. Many people believe that when money is tight, more and more people are bound to take desperate measures in order to keep up with their expenses. It was then recalled that prior to the Prohibition Act, the government used to acquire massive amounts of cash by way of imposing taxes on liquor. During the time when the Eighteenth Amendment was ratified, the government attempted to spend money demanding to implement unenforceable regulations despite the fact that the rest of the money exhausted on purchasing alcohol by the public was just going to the hands of criminals.
During the prohibition, alcohol still became available. People continued to engage in drinking sessions and got drunk. Other people became extreme alcoholics and even experienced delirium tremens. Drunk drivers continued to become a constant threat on the main roads. Drunkards continue to kill others, commit suicide, and murdered. They relentlessly beat their children and often the injury was fatal. Hospital, courts, mental hospitals, and jails were still crammed with drunkards. Because of this, it was realized that the situation prior to the ratification of the Eighteenth Amendment was better compared to how the situation after the Prohibition was approved. A lot of advocates of Prohibition Act realized the negative consequences of the Eighteenth Amendment and started to turn in opposition to it.
Initially, alcohol prohibition was not revoked because a lot of people come to a decision that alcohol was a safe drug. Quite the opposite, the United States found out during Prohibition the real horrors of the drug. What triggered the revocation of the Eighteenth Amendment was the gradual realization that prohibition of alcohol was not working. Rather than consuming alcoholic drinks produced under the protections of federal and state standards, for instance, a lot of individuals now drink “rotgut,” some contaminated, some adulterated. The consumption of methyl alcohol, a poisonous substance, since ethyl alcohol was either too costly or unattainable, resulted to death and blindness “ginger jake,” an adulterant seen in bootleg alcohol drinks, created death and paralysis. The scandalous bar was substituted by the even less brackish speakeasy. There was a change from comparatively mild light liquors and wines to the less bulky hard liquors which are less hazardous to produce, deliver, and put up for sale on the black market.
Young individuals particularly highly regarded young women who were seldom seen drunk in public prior to 1920 wobbled out of alcoholic drinks and tottered across the streets. Closing hours were legally implemented for bars yet alcoholic drinks remained open all day. Organized crime groups controlled the distribution of alcoholic drinks. These groups established their power bases that still exist up till now. Marijuana, a restricted drug in the United States years ago, was first recognized after the ratification of the Prohibition Act. Ether was also used by majority of individuals as substitute to alcohol. There was also an increase in the utilization of drugs including increased consumption of coffee. At the time the Prohibition Act was implemented, it was deliberated that everything that was inappropriate was inadequacy of successful law enforcement. Hence there was an increased in the budgets for the law enforcement. A greater number of Prohibition agents were employed, arrests were made easy by providing agents additional power, and there was also an augmented penalty on those who violate the law. But still prohibition did not work.
Through the years and through series of circumstances that happened, the United States ultimately learned its most significant lesson with regards to alcohol. More significant, the only remains of the Prohibition Act after years since it was revoked, continues to be so disgusting that no suggestion to revitalize it would be considered seriously. Given that alcohol is considered as a nondrug, nonetheless, the significance of the lesson to drug exclusions has been unnoticed. The Twenty-first Amendment left authority in the states to hold on to statewide alcohol banning and made it a central crime to transport alcoholic drinks into a dry state. Statewide banning of alcohol, on the other hand, was a failure just like nationwide prohibition.
In conclusion, a lot could be obtained by making alcohol inaccessible rather than manufacturing any drug that is not available. Up till now, the United States, following the thirteen-year experiment, determinedly turned its back in opposition to alcohol ban. Society acknowledged that banning does not in effect forbid, and that it conveys in its existence added unfavorable impacts. Alcohol has significant medicinal uses as well as social uses. But alcohol is also prone to various forms of misuse. Creating a social policy intended to make the most of the benefits and to reduce the damage brought about by alcohol is a great challenge to face in the future. Nonetheless, the initial step on the way to the achievement of the goal is surely evident today: to publicize the straightforward fact that the extensively made dangers perils of drugs are as a matter of fact the dangers of alcohol and that other drugs are not free from any kinds of hazard. When the United States ultimately reaches to a sound decision of creating a sound policy for these drugs, this guiding principle will surely be a dependable guideline for all and the public will continue to diminish the use of alcohol and drugs particularly those that are prohibited.
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Cohen, Daniel. Prohibition: America Makes Alcohol Illegal. Millbrook Press, 1995.
Dills, Angela K., Mireille Jacobson, and Jeffrey A. Miron. “The effect of alcohol prohibition on alcohol consumption: evidence from drunkenness arrests.”Economics Letters 86, no. 2 (2005): 279-284.
Moore, Mark Harrison, and Dean R. Gerstein, eds. Alcohol and public policy: beyond the shadow of prohibition. National Academies Press, 1981.
Thornton, Mark. “Cato Institute Policy Analysis No. 157: Alcohol Prohibition Was a Failure.” (1991).