A & P (Student`s name)

(Course Code)
(Professor`s name)
September 13, 2013
Question 1: There are four layers to the alimentary canal which are the mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, and the serosa. The final layer goes by another name what the other name and what is this layers function?
Serosa is also known as Adventitia. This is the outermost layer of the gastrointestinal tract. It secretes a lubricating fluid called serous fluid which minimizes friction from the movement of the muscle (Frost, 2001).
Mucosa: its main functions include secretion of mucus, hormones, enzymes and absorption of digested food as well as protection from bacterial attack.
Submucosa: connective tissue with blood vessels, nerve fibers, lymphatic vessels and scattered lymph nodes.
Mascularis externa: this layer contains three layers of smooth muscle.
Question 2: If monoglycerides are one of the three fatty acids, what are the other two fatty acids called? Has anyone found any information that goes into detail about this?
The other two fatty acids include triglycerides and polyglyceride (Christophe & DeVriese, 2000). There is plenty of information regarding these three types of fatty acids. For instance, fatty acids are normally ingested in form of triglycerides that are not absorbable by the intestines. The pancreatic lipase breaks them into monoglycerides and free fatty acids.
Question 3: There are four mentioned on page 580 they are the cardiac region, the fundus, body, and the pyloric region. My question is does each of these regions have a different function in the process of digestion or is kind of like the spinal cord with different sections all working together to do one job?
The four regions of the stomach are just sections of the stomach whose role is to support a central course, just like the spinal cords many parts performing a central function. The functions of the four parts of the stomach include:
Cardia region: This is the section where the content of the food pipe enters the stomach. The fundus forms the upper curvature of the stomach while the body is the central region of the stomach. Pylorus is the lower part of the stomach which enhances the emptying of the content of the stomach into the small intestines. Hence these parts are one just different parts of one organ doing the same function (Frost, 2001).
Question 4: The large intestine has three sections the cecum, rectum, and colon. I do not understand the importance. Can anyone explain the significance of having these three sections?
The three sections of the large intestines are critical in the process of food digestion. Particularly, this is the area where digested food is absorbed into the body and the waste eliminated through the anus. The three sections function in a distinct way and all aid in ending the digestion process. The functions of the three sections include:
Cecum: At the intersection point of the cecum and the ileum, the sphincter muscle, a valeve opens up and pushes food from the ileum through the expanding cecum. The cecum takes the digested food from the small intestine and moves it to the colon. The received food is mainly undigested fiber, vitamis, minerals and some water (Frost, 2001).
Colon: In the colon there are a number of bacteria which produce vitamin K, essential for the process of blood clotting. The cells lining the colon absorb vitamins, minerals, water and mass of undigested foods from the cecum (Frost, 2001). Through muscular contraction, the fecal matter (undigested food) is pushed to the rectum. The colon is responsible for the elimination of toxic waste matter from the body in the form of feces.
Rectum: the rectums main function if to receive the fecal matter from the colon. It stores the feces until it is removed from the body through the anus, which is the last part of the digestive tract (Frost, 2001).
Therefore the three sections of the large intestines function harmoniously and are very important in the process of digestion. In fact they enable the completion of the digestion process.
Christophe, A. & DeVriese, S. (2000). Fat digestion and absorption. Champaign, Ill: AOCS Press.
Frost, H. (2001). The digestive system. Mankato, Minn: Pebble Books.

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