A & P Question One

The urine follows a certain order before its excretion. After the
secretion of urine by the kidneys, it is conveyed to the urinary bladder
by the ureters. In the urinary bladder, the urine is retained for some
time the walls of the urinary bladder have the capacity to expand and
contract in order to allow holding and releasing of urine (Hudson,
2006). When the time of releasing urine comes, the urine is discharged
from the body through the urethra. The discharge of urine from the
bladder is usually under voluntary nervous control.
Question Two
The food pyramid is remarkably vital in keeping the body healthy and
maintaining the body processes. The food pyramid comprises of grains,
vegetables, fruits, fats and oils, milk and dairy products, meat, beans,
fish and nuts. All these fall into six categories, where five groups
represent food while the sixth group comprises of fats and oils. These
food groups are usually broken down to provide energy for the body
processes. The body cannot function well without the required energy
hence, without the breakdown of these food substances, the body
functioning will be affected adversely (Watson, 2004). Besides, the
breakdown of these food substances provide different nutrients required
by the body in maintaining a good health therefore, after the breakdown
of the food substances, the body is nourished with the various
nutrients. The fats and oils help in insulating the body and their
breakdown provides the required energy by the body.
Question Three
Kidney infection describes the inflation of the renal parenchyma,
pelvis, and calyces especially because of a local bacteria infection.
The infection is usually caused by E. Coli bacteria. This bacteria
spreads from the bladder or the urethra to one of the kidneys infecting
it. In case the infection is not treated with prompt, there is a risk of
developing serious complications, which may include blood poisoning also
known as sepsis and kidney damage. Kidney stones comprise of a compound
known as calcium oxalate, which is as a result of accumulating dissolved
minerals on the inner lining of the kidneys (Watson, 2004). The deposits
can grow up to the size of a golf ball as it maintains a sharp,
crystalline formation. The stones may pass unnoticed from the urinary
tract, but can cause extreme pain as they exit. The chief cause of
kidney stones is a lack of water. Kidney stones usually affect
individuals that drink less than the required eight to ten glasses of
water per day. The moment there is not adequate water to dilute uric
acid, which is a component of urine, the PH level in around the kidneys
drops and develops to be more acidic. An extremely acidic environment in
the kidneys creates a conducive environment for the formation of the
kidney stones.
Question Four
Caffeine is known to relieve headaches because of its capacity to
increase alertness, improve muscle coordination and decreasing of
fatigue. Through this relaxation of muscles individuals become relieved
of headaches (Schrier, 2007). However, caffeine can cause kidney
infection because it causes stimulation of the walls of the urinary
bladder and the urinary tract, which may lead to irritation if one
already has an infection. Dehydration is caused by the diuretic effect
of caffeine. Dehydration decreases the frequency of urination, which may
allow bacteria in the urinary tract to populate into an infection.
Hudson, D. M. (2006). Top shelf. Portland, Me: Walch Publishing.
Schrier, R. W. (2007). Diseases of the kidney & urinary tract.
Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Watson, S. (2004). The urinary system. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
A & P

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