A constitutional monarchy refers to a type of government that has a

ruler acting as the head of state guided by a constitution, be it a
blended, written or uncodified constitution. Divine right absolutism, on
the other hand, refers to a form of government that has a monarch, who
is believed to be God’s representative on earth, controlling all
aspects of the government in which case his word is law.
Ptolemaic conception of the universe saw the earth as the center of the
universe. Ptolemy opined that all motion in the universe took a uniform
circular motion, with other planets, alongside the sun and the moon
orbiting around the earth.
The enlightenment, also known as the Age of Reason, referred to a
confluence of activities and ideas that occurred in the 18th century in
England. Its hallmark was scientific rationalism, with enlightenment
thinkers believing that industrial and scientific advances marked the
entry of a new age of egalitarianism, as well as progress of humankind.
They believed in using human reason to combat superstition, tyranny and
ignorance, and building a better world.
The Spanish colonists introduced diseases such as small pox, measles,
typhus and influenza. These assisted them in colonizing the New World as
it weakened the people in the Americas thereby making them incapable of
fighting. In addition, only the Spaniards had the cure for the diseases,
in which case the Americans had to adhere to their rule.
If such a thing had happened in the 21st century, not only would the
Spaniards be labeled terrorists, but they would also have had the League
of Nations joining hands to fight it.
The pope divided the world into two zones of interest for Spain and
Portugal in 1492 after the discovery of the New World by Columbus upset
the provisions of the 1479 Treaty of Alcacovas, which recognized
Portuguese and Spanish spheres of interests in islands of the Eastern
Atlantic and West Africa. Other countries, however, felt left out and
opined that the Tordesillas agreement barred them from colonizing and
trading in the New World. British monarchs pushed for another doctrine
that allowed Europeans to trade freely in any territory that was not
under the control of a Christian prince.
The key reason for undertaking dangerous voyages between 1400-1800 was
to get minerals and precious stones from lands yet undiscovered, so as
to claim ownership of the lands themselves.
In posting the “95 Theses”, Martin Luther did not intend to break
away from the Roman Catholic church and form a rival Christian Church in
Europe, rather he wanted to raise issue with the manner in which the
catholic church was operating, as well as ask for its reformation.
Muslim empires
The Ottoman Empire was composed of Turkish tribes and took up Islamic
teachings and religion.
The Safavid Empire was made up of mixed ancestry of Kurdish,
Azerbaijani, Turkmen and Persian tribes, as well as intermarriages with
the Pontic Greek and Georgian dignitaries. They were, however, Muslims.
The Mughal Empire was mainly made of Persians but extended over a large
part of India.
Triangular trade was mainly aimed at eliminating trade imbalances in
instances where the export commodities of a region were not required in
the region where it derived its key imports. The ships moved from
European port carrying supplies such as ammunition, guns, slave beads,
copper, trinkets and cloth headed to Africa. It would then head from
Africa to the New World carrying slaves required in the cotton fields,
from where it would take its third leg to the home port carrying export
cargoes like molasses, rum, sugar, hemp and tobacco.
Using the family analogy, the subjects are considered subordinate to the
rulers, just as children are subordinate to parents. There was a
hierarchical relationship where the ruler is at the top, while the
subjects are arranged at different stages in the ladder.
The European explorers were mainly concerned with finding the
“Northwest Passage” as it would shorten the voyages from Asia to
Europe. This passage existed and was eventually successfully navigated
in 1903 by Ronald Amundsen.
The Americas chose to buy slaves rather than raise their own as it was
more time consuming and they wanted to cut any ties that would be
established by slaves.
The Black Death resulted in the deaths of priests as they visited the
sick. The vacant positions were filled by corrupt individuals thereby
damaging the church’s reputation. In addition, the church could not
provide answers that the people demanded, leading to reducing faith in
the church.
The relationship between a ruler and his subjects is described as a
social contract where the subjects give up their rights to the ruler in
exchange for protection of their remaining rights. Hobbes believed that
the society would only survive if there was absolute monarch who the
subjects would religiously follow, while Locke believed that the
subjects should be able to protest the operations of the ruler.
Francis Bacon’s empiricism revolved around the induction process,
where vast amount of particular details would be used to underline some
general truths.
John Calvin`s predestination doctrine outlined the unchangeable decree
of God made prior to the creation of the earth, where He would save some
people and bar others from accessing salvation and sentencing them to
eternal death. This was not appealing to the affluent, as it showed that
God chose people by His grace rather than for anything that they did.
Martin Luther’s “justification by faith” stated that people’s
salvation emanated from their acceptance of the gift of faith from God,
which then brings salvation. However, they could only know salvation
through knowing the Bible, in which case the Justification by Faith
pushed people to seek literacy.
Girls were undervalued in traditional Chinese society as the people
opined that once the girl gets married, she will never be back to her
people, in which case she was of no benefit to them.
Cultural chauvinism caused the fall of the Islamic and Chinese empires
as they refused to trade with other countries thinking of themselves as
superior. The Chinese had Europeans trade their opium for silk, which
weakened them, thereby resulting in its banning. This caused the opium
The economies of both North America and Europe were dependent on
agricultural produce. However, manufacturing became prime for both with
Europe trying to feed the high urban population, while North America was
primarily manufacturing its fur.
Both countries had English as their dominant language.
However, Europe primarily had a Greek culture, while North America
taking on Indian culture.
Europe was under self rule, whereas North America was under colonial
rule by the Spaniards.
Europe’s society was divided into nobles and peasants, while the North
American society was divided into colonialists and the colonized.
In both cases, the dominant religion was Christian, with North America
taking the religion of its colonizers.

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